terminfo - terminal capability data base




   Terminfo  is  a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
   programs   such   as   nvi(1),   rogue(1)   and   libraries   such   as
   ncurses(3NCURSES).   Terminfo  describes  terminals  by giving a set of
   capabilities which they have,  by  specifying  how  to  perform  screen
   operations,  and  by specifying padding requirements and initialization
   sequences.  This describes ncurses version 6.0 (patch 20160625).

   Entries in terminfo consist of  a  sequence  of  `,'  separated  fields
   (embedded  commas  may be escaped with a backslash or notated as \054).
   White space after the `,' separator is ignored.  The  first  entry  for
   each  terminal  gives  the  names  which  are  known  for the terminal,
   separated by `|' characters.  The first name given is the  most  common
   abbreviation  for  the  terminal,  the last name given should be a long
   name fully identifying the terminal, and all others are  understood  as
   synonyms  for  the  terminal name.  All names but the last should be in
   lower case and contain no blanks; the last name may well contain  upper
   case and blanks for readability.

   Lines beginning with a `#' in the first column are treated as comments.
   While comment lines are legal at any point, the output of captoinfo and
   infotocap  (aliases  for  tic)  will  move  comments so they occur only
   between entries.

   Newlines and leading tabs  may  be  used  for  formatting  entries  for
   readability.   These  are  removed from parsed entries.  The infocmp -f
   option relies on this to format if-then-else  expressions:  the  result
   can be read by tic.

   Terminal  names  (except  for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen
   using the following conventions.   The  particular  piece  of  hardware
   making  up  the  terminal should have a root name, thus "hp2621".  This
   name should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in, or
   user  preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a mode
   suffix.  Thus, a vt100 in  132  column  mode  would  be  vt100-w.   The
   following suffixes should be used where possible:

        Suffix                  Meaning                   Example
        -nn      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
        -np      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
        -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
        -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
        -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
        -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
        -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
        -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
        -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
        -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
        -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
        -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep         wy370-vb
        -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

   For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

   Predefined Capabilities
   The  following  is  a  complete table of the capabilities included in a
   terminfo description block and available to  terminfo-using  code.   In
   each line of the table,

   The  variable  is  the  name  by  which the programmer (at the terminfo
   level) accesses the capability.

   The capname is the short name used in the text of the database, and  is
   used  by  a  person updating the database.  Whenever possible, capnames
   are chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard
   (now  superseded  by  ECMA-48,  which  uses  identical  or very similar
   names).   Semantics  are  also  intended  to   match   those   of   the

   The  termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some capabilities
   are new, and have names which termcap did not originate).

   Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of  5
   characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs in
   the source file Caps to line up nicely.

   Finally, the description field attempts to convey the semantics of  the
   capability.  You may find some codes in the description field:

   (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

   #[1-9] in  the  description  field  indicates that the string is passed
          through tparm with parms as given (#i).

   (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the  number  of
          lines affected

   (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.

   These are the boolean capabilities:

           Variable              Cap-       TCap          Description
           Booleans              name       Code
   auto_left_margin              bw         bw        cub1 wraps from
                                                      column 0 to last
   auto_right_margin             am         am        terminal has
                                                      automatic margins
   back_color_erase              bce        ut        screen erased with
                                                      background color
   can_change                    ccc        cc        terminal can re-
                                                      define existing
   ceol_standout_glitch          xhp        xs        standout not erased
                                                      by overwriting (hp)
   col_addr_glitch               xhpa       YA        only positive motion
                                                      for hpa/mhpa caps
   cpi_changes_res               cpix       YF        changing character
                                                      pitch changes
   cr_cancels_micro_mode         crxm       YB        using cr turns off
                                                      micro mode
   dest_tabs_magic_smso          xt         xt        tabs destructive,
                                                      magic so char
   eat_newline_glitch            xenl       xn        newline ignored
                                                      after 80 cols
   erase_overstrike              eo         eo        can erase
                                                      overstrikes with a

   generic_type                  gn         gn        generic line type
   hard_copy                     hc         hc        hardcopy terminal
   hard_cursor                   chts       HC        cursor is hard to
   has_meta_key                  km         km        Has a meta key
                                                      (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
   has_print_wheel               daisy      YC        printer needs
                                                      operator to change
                                                      character set
   has_status_line               hs         hs        has extra status
   hue_lightness_saturation      hls        hl        terminal uses only
                                                      HLS color notation
   insert_null_glitch            in         in        insert mode
                                                      distinguishes nulls
   lpi_changes_res               lpix       YG        changing line pitch
                                                      changes resolution
   memory_above                  da         da        display may be
                                                      retained above the
   memory_below                  db         db        display may be
                                                      retained below the
   move_insert_mode              mir        mi        safe to move while
                                                      in insert mode
   move_standout_mode            msgr       ms        safe to move while
                                                      in standout mode
   needs_xon_xoff                nxon       nx        padding will not
                                                      work, xon/xoff
   no_esc_ctlc                   xsb        xb        beehive (f1=escape,
                                                      f2=ctrl C)
   no_pad_char                   npc        NP        pad character does
                                                      not exist
   non_dest_scroll_region        ndscr      ND        scrolling region is
   non_rev_rmcup                 nrrmc      NR        smcup does not
                                                      reverse rmcup
   over_strike                   os         os        terminal can
   prtr_silent                   mc5i       5i        printer will not
                                                      echo on screen
   row_addr_glitch               xvpa       YD        only positive motion
                                                      for vpa/mvpa caps
   semi_auto_right_margin        sam        YE        printing in last
                                                      column causes cr
   status_line_esc_ok            eslok      es        escape can be used
                                                      on the status line
   tilde_glitch                  hz         hz        cannot print ~'s
   transparent_underline         ul         ul        underline character
   xon_xoff                      xon        xo        terminal uses
                                                      xon/xoff handshaking

   These are the numeric capabilities:

           Variable              Cap-       TCap          Description
            Numeric              name       Code
   columns                       cols       co        number of columns in
                                                      a line
   init_tabs                     it         it        tabs initially every
                                                      # spaces
   label_height                  lh         lh        rows in each label

   label_width                   lw         lw        columns in each
   lines                         lines      li        number of lines on
                                                      screen or page
   lines_of_memory               lm         lm        lines of memory if >
                                                      line. 0 means varies
   magic_cookie_glitch           xmc        sg        number of blank
                                                      characters left by
                                                      smso or rmso
   max_attributes                ma         ma        maximum combined
                                                      attributes terminal
                                                      can handle
   max_colors                    colors     Co        maximum number of
                                                      colors on screen
   max_pairs                     pairs      pa        maximum number of
                                                      color-pairs on the
   maximum_windows               wnum       MW        maximum number of
                                                      definable windows
   no_color_video                ncv        NC        video attributes
                                                      that cannot be used
                                                      with colors
   num_labels                    nlab       Nl        number of labels on
   padding_baud_rate             pb         pb        lowest baud rate
                                                      where padding needed
   virtual_terminal              vt         vt        virtual terminal
                                                      number (CB/unix)
   width_status_line             wsl        ws        number of columns in
                                                      status line

   The following numeric capabilities  are  present  in  the  SVr4.0  term
   structure,  but  are  not yet documented in the man page.  They came in
   with SVr4's printer support.

           Variable              Cap-       TCap          Description
            Numeric              name       Code
   bit_image_entwining           bitwin     Yo        number of passes for
                                                      each bit-image row
   bit_image_type                bitype     Yp        type of bit-image
   buffer_capacity               bufsz      Ya        numbers of bytes
                                                      buffered before
   buttons                       btns       BT        number of buttons on
   dot_horz_spacing              spinh      Yc        spacing of dots
                                                      horizontally in dots
                                                      per inch
   dot_vert_spacing              spinv      Yb        spacing of pins
                                                      vertically in pins
                                                      per inch
   max_micro_address             maddr      Yd        maximum value in
   max_micro_jump                mjump      Ye        maximum value in
   micro_col_size                mcs        Yf        character step size
                                                      when in micro mode
   micro_line_size               mls        Yg        line step size when
                                                      in micro mode
   number_of_pins                npins      Yh        numbers of pins in
   output_res_char               orc        Yi        horizontal
                                                      resolution in units
                                                      per line

   output_res_horz_inch          orhi       Yk        horizontal
                                                      resolution in units
                                                      per inch
   output_res_line               orl        Yj        vertical resolution
                                                      in units per line
   output_res_vert_inch          orvi       Yl        vertical resolution
                                                      in units per inch
   print_rate                    cps        Ym        print rate in
                                                      characters per
   wide_char_size                widcs      Yn        character step size
                                                      when in double wide

   These are the string capabilities:

           Variable              Cap-       TCap          Description
            String               name       Code
   acs_chars                     acsc       ac        graphics charset
                                                      pairs, based on
   back_tab                      cbt        bt        back tab (P)
   bell                          bel        bl        audible signal
                                                      (bell) (P)
   carriage_return               cr         cr        carriage return (P*)
   change_char_pitch             cpi        ZA        Change number of
                                                      characters per inch
                                                      to #1
   change_line_pitch             lpi        ZB        Change number of
                                                      lines per inch to #1
   change_res_horz               chr        ZC        Change horizontal
                                                      resolution to #1
   change_res_vert               cvr        ZD        Change vertical
                                                      resolution to #1
   change_scroll_region          csr        cs        change region to
                                                      line #1 to line #2
   char_padding                  rmp        rP        like ip but when in
                                                      insert mode
   clear_all_tabs                tbc        ct        clear all tab stops
   clear_margins                 mgc        MC        clear right and left
                                                      soft margins
   clear_screen                  clear      cl        clear screen and
                                                      home cursor (P*)
   clr_bol                       el1        cb        Clear to beginning
                                                      of line
   clr_eol                       el         ce        clear to end of line
   clr_eos                       ed         cd        clear to end of
                                                      screen (P*)
   column_address                hpa        ch        horizontal position
                                                      #1, absolute (P)
   command_character             cmdch      CC        terminal settable
                                                      cmd character in
                                                      prototype !?
   create_window                 cwin       CW        define a window #1
                                                      from #2,#3 to #4,#5
   cursor_address                cup        cm        move to row #1
                                                      columns #2
   cursor_down                   cud1       do        down one line
   cursor_home                   home       ho        home cursor (if no

   cursor_invisible              civis      vi        make cursor
   cursor_left                   cub1       le        move left one space
   cursor_mem_address            mrcup      CM        memory relative
                                                      cursor addressing,
                                                      move to row #1
                                                      columns #2
   cursor_normal                 cnorm      ve        make cursor appear
                                                      normal (undo
   cursor_right                  cuf1       nd        non-destructive
                                                      space (move right
                                                      one space)
   cursor_to_ll                  ll         ll        last line, first
                                                      column (if no cup)
   cursor_up                     cuu1       up        up one line
   cursor_visible                cvvis      vs        make cursor very
   define_char                   defc       ZE        Define a character
                                                      #1, #2 dots wide,
                                                      descender #3
   delete_character              dch1       dc        delete character
   delete_line                   dl1        dl        delete line (P*)
   dial_phone                    dial       DI        dial number #1
   dis_status_line               dsl        ds        disable status line
   display_clock                 dclk       DK        display clock
   down_half_line                hd         hd        half a line down
   ena_acs                       enacs      eA        enable alternate
                                                      char set
   enter_alt_charset_mode        smacs      as        start alternate
                                                      character set (P)
   enter_am_mode                 smam       SA        turn on automatic
   enter_blink_mode              blink      mb        turn on blinking
   enter_bold_mode               bold       md        turn on bold (extra
                                                      bright) mode
   enter_ca_mode                 smcup      ti        string to start
                                                      programs using cup
   enter_delete_mode             smdc       dm        enter delete mode
   enter_dim_mode                dim        mh        turn on half-bright
   enter_doublewide_mode         swidm      ZF        Enter double-wide
   enter_draft_quality           sdrfq      ZG        Enter draft-quality
   enter_insert_mode             smir       im        enter insert mode
   enter_italics_mode            sitm       ZH        Enter italic mode
   enter_leftward_mode           slm        ZI        Start leftward
                                                      carriage motion
   enter_micro_mode              smicm      ZJ        Start micro-motion
   enter_near_letter_quality     snlq       ZK        Enter NLQ mode
   enter_normal_quality          snrmq      ZL        Enter normal-quality
   enter_protected_mode          prot       mp        turn on protected
   enter_reverse_mode            rev        mr        turn on reverse
                                                      video mode
   enter_secure_mode             invis      mk        turn on blank mode
   enter_shadow_mode             sshm       ZM        Enter shadow-print
   enter_standout_mode           smso       so        begin standout mode
   enter_subscript_mode          ssubm      ZN        Enter subscript mode

   enter_superscript_mode        ssupm      ZO        Enter superscript
   enter_underline_mode          smul       us        begin underline mode
   enter_upward_mode             sum        ZP        Start upward
                                                      carriage motion
   enter_xon_mode                smxon      SX        turn on xon/xoff
   erase_chars                   ech        ec        erase #1 characters
   exit_alt_charset_mode         rmacs      ae        end alternate
                                                      character set (P)
   exit_am_mode                  rmam       RA        turn off automatic
   exit_attribute_mode           sgr0       me        turn off all
   exit_ca_mode                  rmcup      te        strings to end
                                                      programs using cup
   exit_delete_mode              rmdc       ed        end delete mode
   exit_doublewide_mode          rwidm      ZQ        End double-wide mode
   exit_insert_mode              rmir       ei        exit insert mode
   exit_italics_mode             ritm       ZR        End italic mode
   exit_leftward_mode            rlm        ZS        End left-motion mode
   exit_micro_mode               rmicm      ZT        End micro-motion
   exit_shadow_mode              rshm       ZU        End shadow-print
   exit_standout_mode            rmso       se        exit standout mode
   exit_subscript_mode           rsubm      ZV        End subscript mode
   exit_superscript_mode         rsupm      ZW        End superscript mode
   exit_underline_mode           rmul       ue        exit underline mode
   exit_upward_mode              rum        ZX        End reverse
                                                      character motion
   exit_xon_mode                 rmxon      RX        turn off xon/xoff
   fixed_pause                   pause      PA        pause for 2-3
   flash_hook                    hook       fh        flash switch hook
   flash_screen                  flash      vb        visible bell (may
                                                      not move cursor)
   form_feed                     ff         ff        hardcopy terminal
                                                      page eject (P*)
   from_status_line              fsl        fs        return from status
   goto_window                   wingo      WG        go to window #1
   hangup                        hup        HU        hang-up phone
   init_1string                  is1        i1        initialization
   init_2string                  is2        is        initialization
   init_3string                  is3        i3        initialization
   init_file                     if         if        name of
                                                      initialization file
   init_prog                     iprog      iP        path name of program
                                                      for initialization
   initialize_color              initc      Ic        initialize color #1
                                                      to (#2,#3,#4)
   initialize_pair               initp      Ip        Initialize color
                                                      pair #1 to
   insert_character              ich1       ic        insert character (P)
   insert_line                   il1        al        insert line (P*)
   insert_padding                ip         ip        insert padding after
                                                      inserted character
   key_a1                        ka1        K1        upper left of keypad

   key_a3                        ka3        K3        upper right of
   key_b2                        kb2        K2        center of keypad
   key_backspace                 kbs        kb        backspace key
   key_beg                       kbeg       @1        begin key
   key_btab                      kcbt       kB        back-tab key
   key_c1                        kc1        K4        lower left of keypad
   key_c3                        kc3        K5        lower right of
   key_cancel                    kcan       @2        cancel key
   key_catab                     ktbc       ka        clear-all-tabs key
   key_clear                     kclr       kC        clear-screen or
                                                      erase key
   key_close                     kclo       @3        close key
   key_command                   kcmd       @4        command key
   key_copy                      kcpy       @5        copy key
   key_create                    kcrt       @6        create key
   key_ctab                      kctab      kt        clear-tab key
   key_dc                        kdch1      kD        delete-character key
   key_dl                        kdl1       kL        delete-line key
   key_down                      kcud1      kd        down-arrow key
   key_eic                       krmir      kM        sent by rmir or smir
                                                      in insert mode
   key_end                       kend       @7        end key
   key_enter                     kent       @8        enter/send key
   key_eol                       kel        kE        clear-to-end-of-line
   key_eos                       ked        kS        clear-to-end-of-
                                                      screen key
   key_exit                      kext       @9        exit key
   key_f0                        kf0        k0        F0 function key
   key_f1                        kf1        k1        F1 function key
   key_f10                       kf10       k;        F10 function key
   key_f11                       kf11       F1        F11 function key
   key_f12                       kf12       F2        F12 function key
   key_f13                       kf13       F3        F13 function key
   key_f14                       kf14       F4        F14 function key
   key_f15                       kf15       F5        F15 function key
   key_f16                       kf16       F6        F16 function key
   key_f17                       kf17       F7        F17 function key
   key_f18                       kf18       F8        F18 function key
   key_f19                       kf19       F9        F19 function key
   key_f2                        kf2        k2        F2 function key
   key_f20                       kf20       FA        F20 function key
   key_f21                       kf21       FB        F21 function key
   key_f22                       kf22       FC        F22 function key
   key_f23                       kf23       FD        F23 function key
   key_f24                       kf24       FE        F24 function key
   key_f25                       kf25       FF        F25 function key
   key_f26                       kf26       FG        F26 function key
   key_f27                       kf27       FH        F27 function key
   key_f28                       kf28       FI        F28 function key
   key_f29                       kf29       FJ        F29 function key
   key_f3                        kf3        k3        F3 function key
   key_f30                       kf30       FK        F30 function key
   key_f31                       kf31       FL        F31 function key
   key_f32                       kf32       FM        F32 function key
   key_f33                       kf33       FN        F33 function key
   key_f34                       kf34       FO        F34 function key
   key_f35                       kf35       FP        F35 function key
   key_f36                       kf36       FQ        F36 function key
   key_f37                       kf37       FR        F37 function key
   key_f38                       kf38       FS        F38 function key
   key_f39                       kf39       FT        F39 function key
   key_f4                        kf4        k4        F4 function key
   key_f40                       kf40       FU        F40 function key

   key_f41                       kf41       FV        F41 function key
   key_f42                       kf42       FW        F42 function key
   key_f43                       kf43       FX        F43 function key
   key_f44                       kf44       FY        F44 function key
   key_f45                       kf45       FZ        F45 function key
   key_f46                       kf46       Fa        F46 function key
   key_f47                       kf47       Fb        F47 function key
   key_f48                       kf48       Fc        F48 function key
   key_f49                       kf49       Fd        F49 function key
   key_f5                        kf5        k5        F5 function key
   key_f50                       kf50       Fe        F50 function key
   key_f51                       kf51       Ff        F51 function key
   key_f52                       kf52       Fg        F52 function key
   key_f53                       kf53       Fh        F53 function key
   key_f54                       kf54       Fi        F54 function key
   key_f55                       kf55       Fj        F55 function key
   key_f56                       kf56       Fk        F56 function key
   key_f57                       kf57       Fl        F57 function key
   key_f58                       kf58       Fm        F58 function key
   key_f59                       kf59       Fn        F59 function key
   key_f6                        kf6        k6        F6 function key
   key_f60                       kf60       Fo        F60 function key
   key_f61                       kf61       Fp        F61 function key
   key_f62                       kf62       Fq        F62 function key
   key_f63                       kf63       Fr        F63 function key
   key_f7                        kf7        k7        F7 function key
   key_f8                        kf8        k8        F8 function key
   key_f9                        kf9        k9        F9 function key
   key_find                      kfnd       @0        find key
   key_help                      khlp       %1        help key
   key_home                      khome      kh        home key
   key_ic                        kich1      kI        insert-character key
   key_il                        kil1       kA        insert-line key
   key_left                      kcub1      kl        left-arrow key
   key_ll                        kll        kH        lower-left key (home
   key_mark                      kmrk       %2        mark key
   key_message                   kmsg       %3        message key
   key_move                      kmov       %4        move key
   key_next                      knxt       %5        next key
   key_npage                     knp        kN        next-page key
   key_open                      kopn       %6        open key
   key_options                   kopt       %7        options key
   key_ppage                     kpp        kP        previous-page key
   key_previous                  kprv       %8        previous key
   key_print                     kprt       %9        print key
   key_redo                      krdo       %0        redo key
   key_reference                 kref       &1        reference key
   key_refresh                   krfr       &2        refresh key
   key_replace                   krpl       &3        replace key
   key_restart                   krst       &4        restart key
   key_resume                    kres       &5        resume key
   key_right                     kcuf1      kr        right-arrow key
   key_save                      ksav       &6        save key
   key_sbeg                      kBEG       &9        shifted begin key
   key_scancel                   kCAN       &0        shifted cancel key
   key_scommand                  kCMD       *1        shifted command key
   key_scopy                     kCPY       *2        shifted copy key
   key_screate                   kCRT       *3        shifted create key
   key_sdc                       kDC        *4        shifted delete-
                                                      character key
   key_sdl                       kDL        *5        shifted delete-line
   key_select                    kslt       *6        select key
   key_send                      kEND       *7        shifted end key

   key_seol                      kEOL       *8        shifted clear-to-
                                                      end-of-line key
   key_sexit                     kEXT       *9        shifted exit key
   key_sf                        kind       kF        scroll-forward key
   key_sfind                     kFND       *0        shifted find key
   key_shelp                     kHLP       #1        shifted help key
   key_shome                     kHOM       #2        shifted home key
   key_sic                       kIC        #3        shifted insert-
                                                      character key
   key_sleft                     kLFT       #4        shifted left-arrow
   key_smessage                  kMSG       %a        shifted message key
   key_smove                     kMOV       %b        shifted move key
   key_snext                     kNXT       %c        shifted next key
   key_soptions                  kOPT       %d        shifted options key
   key_sprevious                 kPRV       %e        shifted previous key
   key_sprint                    kPRT       %f        shifted print key
   key_sr                        kri        kR        scroll-backward key
   key_sredo                     kRDO       %g        shifted redo key
   key_sreplace                  kRPL       %h        shifted replace key
   key_sright                    kRIT       %i        shifted right-arrow
   key_srsume                    kRES       %j        shifted resume key
   key_ssave                     kSAV       !1        shifted save key
   key_ssuspend                  kSPD       !2        shifted suspend key
   key_stab                      khts       kT        set-tab key
   key_sundo                     kUND       !3        shifted undo key
   key_suspend                   kspd       &7        suspend key
   key_undo                      kund       &8        undo key
   key_up                        kcuu1      ku        up-arrow key
   keypad_local                  rmkx       ke        leave
   keypad_xmit                   smkx       ks        enter
   lab_f0                        lf0        l0        label on function
                                                      key f0 if not f0
   lab_f1                        lf1        l1        label on function
                                                      key f1 if not f1
   lab_f10                       lf10       la        label on function
                                                      key f10 if not f10
   lab_f2                        lf2        l2        label on function
                                                      key f2 if not f2
   lab_f3                        lf3        l3        label on function
                                                      key f3 if not f3
   lab_f4                        lf4        l4        label on function
                                                      key f4 if not f4
   lab_f5                        lf5        l5        label on function
                                                      key f5 if not f5
   lab_f6                        lf6        l6        label on function
                                                      key f6 if not f6
   lab_f7                        lf7        l7        label on function
                                                      key f7 if not f7
   lab_f8                        lf8        l8        label on function
                                                      key f8 if not f8
   lab_f9                        lf9        l9        label on function
                                                      key f9 if not f9
   label_format                  fln        Lf        label format
   label_off                     rmln       LF        turn off soft labels
   label_on                      smln       LO        turn on soft labels
   meta_off                      rmm        mo        turn off meta mode
   meta_on                       smm        mm        turn on meta mode
                                                      (8th-bit on)
   micro_column_address          mhpa       ZY        Like column_address
                                                      in micro mode

   micro_down                    mcud1      ZZ        Like cursor_down in
                                                      micro mode
   micro_left                    mcub1      Za        Like cursor_left in
                                                      micro mode
   micro_right                   mcuf1      Zb        Like cursor_right in
                                                      micro mode
   micro_row_address             mvpa       Zc        Like row_address #1
                                                      in micro mode
   micro_up                      mcuu1      Zd        Like cursor_up in
                                                      micro mode
   newline                       nel        nw        newline (behave like
                                                      cr followed by lf)
   order_of_pins                 porder     Ze        Match software bits
                                                      to print-head pins
   orig_colors                   oc         oc        Set all color pairs
                                                      to the original ones
   orig_pair                     op         op        Set default pair to
                                                      its original value
   pad_char                      pad        pc        padding char
                                                      (instead of null)
   parm_dch                      dch        DC        delete #1 characters
   parm_delete_line              dl         DL        delete #1 lines (P*)
   parm_down_cursor              cud        DO        down #1 lines (P*)
   parm_down_micro               mcud       Zf        Like
                                                      parm_down_cursor in
                                                      micro mode
   parm_ich                      ich        IC        insert #1 characters
   parm_index                    indn       SF        scroll forward #1
                                                      lines (P)
   parm_insert_line              il         AL        insert #1 lines (P*)
   parm_left_cursor              cub        LE        move #1 characters
                                                      to the left (P)
   parm_left_micro               mcub       Zg        Like
                                                      parm_left_cursor in
                                                      micro mode
   parm_right_cursor             cuf        RI        move #1 characters
                                                      to the right (P*)
   parm_right_micro              mcuf       Zh        Like
                                                      parm_right_cursor in
                                                      micro mode
   parm_rindex                   rin        SR        scroll back #1 lines
   parm_up_cursor                cuu        UP        up #1 lines (P*)
   parm_up_micro                 mcuu       Zi        Like parm_up_cursor
                                                      in micro mode
   pkey_key                      pfkey      pk        program function key
                                                      #1 to type string #2
   pkey_local                    pfloc      pl        program function key
                                                      #1 to execute string
   pkey_xmit                     pfx        px        program function key
                                                      #1 to transmit
                                                      string #2
   plab_norm                     pln        pn        program label #1 to
                                                      show string #2
   print_screen                  mc0        ps        print contents of
   prtr_non                      mc5p       pO        turn on printer for
                                                      #1 bytes
   prtr_off                      mc4        pf        turn off printer
   prtr_on                       mc5        po        turn on printer
   pulse                         pulse      PU        select pulse dialing
   quick_dial                    qdial      QD        dial number #1
                                                      without checking

   remove_clock                  rmclk      RC        remove clock
   repeat_char                   rep        rp        repeat char #1 #2
                                                      times (P*)
   req_for_input                 rfi        RF        send next input char
                                                      (for ptys)
   reset_1string                 rs1        r1        reset string
   reset_2string                 rs2        r2        reset string
   reset_3string                 rs3        r3        reset string
   reset_file                    rf         rf        name of reset file
   restore_cursor                rc         rc        restore cursor to
                                                      position of last
   row_address                   vpa        cv        vertical position #1
                                                      absolute (P)
   save_cursor                   sc         sc        save current cursor
                                                      position (P)
   scroll_forward                ind        sf        scroll text up (P)
   scroll_reverse                ri         sr        scroll text down (P)
   select_char_set               scs        Zj        Select character
                                                      set, #1
   set_attributes                sgr        sa        define video
                                                      attributes #1-#9
   set_background                setb       Sb        Set background color
   set_bottom_margin             smgb       Zk        Set bottom margin at
                                                      current line
   set_bottom_margin_parm        smgbp      Zl        Set bottom margin at
                                                      line #1 or (if smgtp
                                                      is not given) #2
                                                      lines from bottom
   set_clock                     sclk       SC        set clock, #1 hrs #2
                                                      mins #3 secs
   set_color_pair                scp        sp        Set current color
                                                      pair to #1
   set_foreground                setf       Sf        Set foreground color
   set_left_margin               smgl       ML        set left soft margin
                                                      at current
                                                      column.        See
                                                      smgl. (ML is not in
                                                      BSD termcap).
   set_left_margin_parm          smglp      Zm        Set left (right)
                                                      margin at column #1
   set_right_margin              smgr       MR        set right soft
                                                      margin at current
   set_right_margin_parm         smgrp      Zn        Set right margin at
                                                      column #1
   set_tab                       hts        st        set a tab in every
                                                      row, current columns
   set_top_margin                smgt       Zo        Set top margin at
                                                      current line
   set_top_margin_parm           smgtp      Zp        Set top (bottom)
                                                      margin at row #1
   set_window                    wind       wi        current window is
                                                      lines #1-#2 cols
   start_bit_image               sbim       Zq        Start printing bit
                                                      image graphics
   start_char_set_def            scsd       Zr        Start character set
                                                      definition #1, with
                                                      #2 characters in the
   stop_bit_image                rbim       Zs        Stop printing bit
                                                      image graphics

   stop_char_set_def             rcsd       Zt        End definition of
                                                      character set #1
   subscript_characters          subcs      Zu        List of
   superscript_characters        supcs      Zv        List of
   tab                           ht         ta        tab to next 8-space
                                                      hardware tab stop
   these_cause_cr                docr       Zw        Printing any of
                                                      these characters
                                                      causes CR
   to_status_line                tsl        ts        move to status line,
                                                      column #1
   tone                          tone       TO        select touch tone
   underline_char                uc         uc        underline char and
                                                      move past it
   up_half_line                  hu         hu        half a line up
   user0                         u0         u0        User string #0
   user1                         u1         u1        User string #1
   user2                         u2         u2        User string #2
   user3                         u3         u3        User string #3
   user4                         u4         u4        User string #4
   user5                         u5         u5        User string #5
   user6                         u6         u6        User string #6
   user7                         u7         u7        User string #7
   user8                         u8         u8        User string #8
   user9                         u9         u9        User string #9
   wait_tone                     wait       WA        wait for dial-tone
   xoff_character                xoffc      XF        XOFF character
   xon_character                 xonc       XN        XON character
   zero_motion                   zerom      Zx        No motion for
                                                      subsequent character

   The following string  capabilities  are  present  in  the  SVr4.0  term
   structure, but were originally not documented in the man page.

           Variable              Cap-         TCap         Description
            String               name         Code
   alt_scancode_esc              scesa        S8        Alternate escape
                                                        for scancode
   bit_image_carriage_return     bicr         Yv        Move to beginning
                                                        of same row
   bit_image_newline             binel        Zz        Move to next row
                                                        of the bit image
   bit_image_repeat              birep        Xy        Repeat bit image
                                                        cell #1 #2 times
   char_set_names                csnm         Zy        Produce #1'th item
                                                        from list of
                                                        character set
   code_set_init                 csin         ci        Init sequence for
                                                        multiple codesets
   color_names                   colornm      Yw        Give name for
                                                        color #1
   define_bit_image_region       defbi        Yx        Define rectangular
                                                        bit image region
   device_type                   devt         dv        Indicate
   display_pc_char               dispc        S1        Display PC
                                                        character #1

   end_bit_image_region          endbi        Yy        End a bit-image
   enter_pc_charset_mode         smpch        S2        Enter PC character
                                                        display mode
   enter_scancode_mode           smsc         S4        Enter PC scancode
   exit_pc_charset_mode          rmpch        S3        Exit PC character
                                                        display mode
   exit_scancode_mode            rmsc         S5        Exit PC scancode
   get_mouse                     getm         Gm        Curses should get
                                                        button events,
                                                        parameter #1 not
   key_mouse                     kmous        Km        Mouse event has
   mouse_info                    minfo        Mi        Mouse status
   pc_term_options               pctrm        S6        PC terminal
   pkey_plab                     pfxl         xl        Program function
                                                        key #1 to type
                                                        string #2 and show
                                                        string #3
   req_mouse_pos                 reqmp        RQ        Request mouse
   scancode_escape               scesc        S7        Escape for
                                                        scancode emulation
   set0_des_seq                  s0ds         s0        Shift to codeset 0
                                                        (EUC set 0, ASCII)
   set1_des_seq                  s1ds         s1        Shift to codeset 1
   set2_des_seq                  s2ds         s2        Shift to codeset 2
   set3_des_seq                  s3ds         s3        Shift to codeset 3
   set_a_background              setab        AB        Set background
                                                        color to #1, using
                                                        ANSI escape
   set_a_foreground              setaf        AF        Set foreground
                                                        color to #1, using
                                                        ANSI escape
   set_color_band                setcolor     Yz        Change to ribbon
                                                        color #1
   set_lr_margin                 smglr        ML        Set both left and
                                                        right margins to
                                                        #1, #2.  (ML is
                                                        not in BSD
   set_page_length               slines       YZ        Set page length to
                                                        #1 lines
   set_tb_margin                 smgtb        MT        Sets both top and
                                                        bottom margins to
                                                        #1, #2

    The XSI Curses standard added these hardcopy capabilities.  They  were
    used  in  some post-4.1 versions of System V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5
    and IRIX 6.x.  Except for YI, the ncurses termcap names for  them  are
    invented.   According to the XSI Curses standard, they have no termcap
    names.  If your compiled terminfo entries use these, they may  not  be
    binary-compatible with System V terminfo entries after SVr4.1; beware!

            Variable              Cap-       TCap         Description
             String               name       Code
    enter_horizontal_hl_mode      ehhlm      Xh       Enter horizontal
                                                      highlight mode
    enter_left_hl_mode            elhlm      Xl       Enter left highlight

    enter_low_hl_mode             elohlm     Xo       Enter low highlight
    enter_right_hl_mode           erhlm      Xr       Enter right
                                                      highlight mode
    enter_top_hl_mode             ethlm      Xt       Enter top highlight
    enter_vertical_hl_mode        evhlm      Xv       Enter vertical
                                                      highlight mode
    set_a_attributes              sgr1       sA       Define second set of
                                                      video attributes
    set_pglen_inch                slength    YI       Set page length to
                                                      #1 hundredth of an
                                                      inch (some
                                                      implementations use
                                                      sL for termcap).

   User-Defined Capabilities
   The  preceding  section  listed the predefined capabilities.  They deal
   with some special features for terminals no longer (or possibly  never)
   produced.   Occasionally  there are special features of newer terminals
   which are awkward or impossible to represent by reusing the  predefined

   ncurses    addresses   this   limitation   by   allowing   user-defined
   capabilities.  The tic and infocmp programs provide the -x  option  for
   this purpose.  When -x is set, tic treats unknown capabilities as user-
   defined.  That is, if tic encounters a capability name  which  it  does
   not  recognize, it infers its type (boolean, number or string) from the
   syntax and makes an extended table  entry  for  that  capability.   The
   use_extended_names   function   makes  this  information  conditionally
   available to applications.   The  ncurses  library  provides  the  data
   leaving most of the behavior to applications:

   *   User-defined  capability  strings  whose  name  begins with "k" are
       treated as function keys.

   *   The types (boolean,  number,  string)  determined  by  tic  can  be
       inferred by successful calls on tigetflag, etc.

   *   If the capability name happens to be two characters, the capability
       is also available through the termcap interface.

   While termcap is said to be  extensible  because  it  does  not  use  a
   predefined  set of capabilities, in practice it has been limited to the
   capabilities defined by terminfo implementations.   As  a  rule,  user-
   defined capabilities intended for use by termcap applications should be
   limited to booleans and numbers to avoid running  past  the  1023  byte
   limit  assumed  by  termcap implementations and their applications.  In
   particular, providing extended sets  of  function  keys  (past  the  60
   numbered keys and the handful of special named keys) is best done using
   the longer names available using terminfo.

   A Sample Entry
   The  following  entry,  describing  an   ANSI-standard   terminal,   is
   representative of what a terminfo entry for a modern terminal typically
   looks like.

   ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
           am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
           colors#8, cols#80, it#8, lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
           bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
           cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
           cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
           cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P,
           dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
           el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
           ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
           indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
           kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
           mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,
           rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
           rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
           s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B, s3ds=\E+B,
           setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
           sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
           smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
           u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

   Entries may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at  the
   beginning  of  each line except the first.  Comments may be included on
   lines beginning with "#".  Capabilities in terminfo are of three types:

   *   Boolean capabilities which indicate  that  the  terminal  has  some
       particular feature,

   *   numeric capabilities giving the size of the terminal or the size of
       particular delays, and

   *   string capabilities, which give a sequence which  can  be  used  to
       perform particular terminal operations.

   Types of Capabilities
   All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard
   terminals have automatic margins (i.e., an automatic return  and  line-
   feed  when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the capability
   am.  Hence the description of ansi includes am.   Numeric  capabilities
   are  followed  by  the  character  "#" and then a positive value.  Thus
   cols, which indicates the number of columns the terminal has, gives the
   value  "80" for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be specified
   in decimal, octal or hexadecimal,  using  the  C  programming  language
   conventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

   Finally,  string  valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end of line
   sequence) are given by the two-character  code,  an  "=",  and  then  a
   string ending at the next following ",".

   A  number  of  escape  sequences  are  provided  in  the  string valued
   capabilities for easy encoding of characters there.  Both \E and \e map
   to  an  ESCAPE character, ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x,
   and the sequences \n \l \r \t 	  \f  \s  give  a  newline,  line-feed,
   return, tab, backspace, form-feed, and space.  Other escapes include

   *   \^ for ^,

   *   \\ for \,

   *   \, for comma,

   *   \: for :,

   *   and \0 for null.

       \0 will produce \200, which does not terminate a string but behaves
       as a null character on most terminals, providing CS7 is  specified.
       See stty(1).

       The  reason  for  this quirk is to maintain binary compatibility of
       the compiled terminfo files with other implementations,  e.g.,  the
       SVr4  systems,  which  document  this.  Compiled terminfo files use
       null-terminated strings, with no  lengths.   Modifying  this  would
       require  a  new  binary  format,  which  would  not work with other

   Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

   A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere  in  a  string  capability,
   enclosed  in  $<..>  brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>, and padding characters
   are supplied by tputs to provide this  delay.   The  delay  must  be  a
   number  with at most one decimal place of precision; it may be followed
   by suffixes "*" or "/" or both.   A  "*"  indicates  that  the  padding
   required  is  proportional  to  the  number  of  lines  affected by the
   operation, and  the  amount  given  is  the  per-affected-unit  padding
   required.   (In  the  case of insert character, the factor is still the
   number of lines affected.)  Normally, padding is advisory if the device
   has  the  xon  capability; it is used for cost computation but does not
   trigger delays.  A "/" suffix indicates that the padding  is  mandatory
   and  forces a delay of the given number of milliseconds even on devices
   for which xon is present to indicate flow control.

   Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To  do  this,
   put  a  period before the capability name.  For example, see the second
   ind in the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
   The ncurses library  searches  for  terminal  descriptions  in  several
   places.   It  uses only the first description found.  The library has a
   compiled-in list of  places  to  search  which  can  be  overridden  by
   environment  variables.   Before starting to search, ncurses eliminates
   duplicates in its search list.

   *   If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is  interpreted  as
       the pathname of a directory containing the compiled description you
       are working on.  Only that directory is searched.

   *   If TERMINFO is not set, ncurses will instead look in the  directory
       $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled description.

   *   Next,  if  the  environment  variable TERMINFO_DIRS is set, ncurses
       will interpret the contents of that variable as a  list  of  colon-
       separated directories (or database files) to be searched.

       An  empty directory name (i.e., if the variable begins or ends with
       a colon, or contains adjacent colons) is interpreted as the  system
       location /etc/terminfo.

   *   Finally, ncurses searches these compiled-in locations:

       *   a list of directories (no default value), and

       *   the  system  terminfo directory, /etc/terminfo (the compiled-in

   Preparing Descriptions
   We now outline how to prepare  descriptions  of  terminals.   The  most
   effective  way  to  prepare  a terminal description is by imitating the
   description of a similar  terminal  in  terminfo  and  to  build  up  a
   description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some other
   screen-oriented program to check that they are correct.  Be aware  that
   a  very  unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the ability of the
   terminfo file to describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the
   test program.

   To  get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer
   did not document it) a severe test is to edit  a  large  file  at  9600
   baud, delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen, then hit the
   "u" key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding
   is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
   The  number  of  columns  on each line for the terminal is given by the
   cols numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then the number  of
   lines  on the screen is given by the lines capability.  If the terminal
   wraps around to the beginning of the next  line  when  it  reaches  the
   right  margin,  then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal
   can clear its screen, leaving the cursor in  the  home  position,  then
   this  is  given  by  the  clear  string  capability.   If  the terminal
   overstrikes (rather than clearing a position when a character is struck
   over)  then  it  should  have  the os capability.  If the terminal is a
   printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os
   applies  to  storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as
   well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there is a code to  move  the
   cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as cr.  (Normally
   this will be carriage return, control  M.)   If  there  is  a  code  to
   produce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

   If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
   backspace) that capability should be given as cub1.   Similarly,  codes
   to  move  to the right, up, and down should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and
   cud1.  These local cursor motions should not alter the text  they  pass
   over,  for  example,  you  would  not normally use "cuf1= " because the
   space would erase the character moved over.

   A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
   terminfo  are  undefined  at  the left and top edges of a CRT terminal.
   Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge, unless
   bw  is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In order
   to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner  of  the
   screen and send the ind (index) string.

   To  scroll  text  down,  a  program  goes to the top left corner of the
   screen and sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The strings ind and ri
   are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

   Parameterized  versions  of  the  scrolling  sequences are indn and rin
   which have the same semantics as ind and ri except that they  take  one
   parameter,  and scroll that many lines.  They are also undefined except
   at the appropriate edge of the screen.

   The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge  of
   the  screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily apply to
   a cuf1 from the last column.  The only local motion  which  is  defined
   from  the  left  edge is if bw is given, then a cub1 from the left edge
   will move to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is  not  given,
   the  effect  is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box around the
   edge of the screen, for example.  If the terminal has switch selectable
   automatic  margins,  the terminfo file usually assumes that this is on;
   i.e., am.  If the terminal has a  command  which  moves  to  the  first
   column  of  the  next line, that command can be given as nel (newline).
   It does not matter if the command clears the remainder of  the  current
   line,  so  if the terminal has no cr and lf it may still be possible to
   craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

   These  capabilities  suffice  to  describe  hard-copy  and  "glass-tty"
   terminals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

   33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
           bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

   while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

   adm3|3|lsi adm3,
           am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
           ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
   Cursor  addressing  and  other  strings  requiring  parameters  in  the
   terminal are described  by  a  parameterized  string  capability,  with
   printf-like  escapes  such  as  %x  in it.  For example, to address the
   cursor, the cup capability is given, using two parameters: the row  and
   column  to  address  to.   (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and
   refer to the physical screen visible to the user,  not  to  any  unseen
   memory.)   If  the terminal has memory relative cursor addressing, that
   can be indicated by mrcup.

   The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to  manipulate
   it.   Typically  a  sequence  will  push one of the parameters onto the
   stack and then print it in  some  format.   Print  (e.g.,  "%d")  is  a
   special  case.  Other operations, including "%t" pop their operand from
   the stack.   It  is  noted  that  more  complex  operations  are  often
   necessary, e.g., in the sgr string.

   The % encodings have the following meanings:

   %%   outputs "%"

        as  in  printf, flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a ":" to allow the
        next character to be a "-" flag, avoiding interpreting "%-" as  an

   %c   print pop() like %c in printf

   %s   print pop() like %s in printf

        push i'th parameter

        set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

        get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

        set static variable [a-z] to pop()

        get static variable [a-z] and push it

        The  terms  "static"  and "dynamic" are misleading.  Historically,
        these are simply two different sets of variables, whose values are
        not  reset  between  calls  to  tparm.   However, that fact is not
        documented in other implementations.  Relying on it will adversely
        impact portability to other implementations.

   %'c' char constant c

        integer constant nn

   %l   push strlen(pop)

   %+, %-, %*, %/, %m
        arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

   %&, %|, %^
        bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

   %=, %>, %<
        logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

   %A, %O
        logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

   %!, %~
        unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

   %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

   %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
        This forms an if-then-else.  The %e elsepart is optional.  Usually
        the %? expr part pushes a value onto the stack,  and  %t  pops  it
        from  the  stack,  testing if it is nonzero (true).  If it is zero
        (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

        It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
        %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

        where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

        Use the -f option of tic or infocmp to see the  structure  of  if-
        then-else's.  Some strings, e.g., sgr can be very complicated when
        written on one line.  The -f option splits the string  into  lines
        with the parts indented.

   Binary  operations  are  in postfix form with the operands in the usual
   order.  That is, to get x-5 one  would  use  "%gx%{5}%-".   %P  and  %g
   variables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

   Consider  the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to be
   sent \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of  the
   rows  and  columns  is  inverted  here, and that the row and column are
   printed   as   two   digits.     Thus    its    cup    capability    is

   The  Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded by
   a  ^T,  with  the  row   and   column   simply   encoded   in   binary,
   "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".   Terminals  which  use  "%c"  need  to  be able to
   backspace the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up one line on  the
   screen  (cuu1).   This  is  necessary  because it is not always safe to
   transmit \n ^D and \r, as the system may change or discard them.   (The
   library  routines  dealing with terminfo set tty modes so that tabs are
   never expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This turns out to be  essential
   for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

   A  final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset by
   a blank character, thus "cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c".  After sending
   "\E=",  this  pushes  the first parameter, pushes the ASCII value for a
   space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two
   previous  values) and outputs that value as a character.  Then the same
   is done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is  possible
   using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
   If  the  terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left
   corner of screen) then this can be given as home; similarly a fast  way
   of  getting  to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll; this may
   involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a program should
   never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no assumption
   about the effect of moving up from the home position.   Note  that  the
   home  position  is  the  same  as  addressing to (0,0): to the top left
   corner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the  \EH  sequence  on  HP
   terminals cannot be used for home.)

   If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can
   be given as single  parameter  capabilities  hpa  (horizontal  position
   absolute)  and  vpa  (vertical position absolute).  Sometimes these are
   shorter than the more general  two  parameter  sequence  (as  with  the
   hp2645)   and  can  be  used  in  preference  to  cup.   If  there  are
   parameterized local motions (e.g., move n spaces to  the  right)  these
   can  be  given  as  cud,  cub,  cuf,  and  cuu  with a single parameter
   indicating how many spaces to move.  These are primarily useful if  the
   terminal does not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

   If  the  terminal  needs to be in a special mode when running a program
   that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode can
   be  given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from terminals
   like the Concept with more than one page of memory.   If  the  terminal
   has  only  memory  relative  cursor  addressing and not screen relative
   cursor addressing, a one screen-sized window must  be  fixed  into  the
   terminal for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for
   the TEKTRONIX 4025, where smcup sets the command character  to  be  the
   one  used  by  terminfo.   If  the  smcup sequence will not restore the
   screen after an rmcup  sequence  is  output  (to  the  state  prior  to
   outputting rmcup), specify nrrmc.

   Area Clears
   If  the  terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the
   line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as  el.   If
   the  terminal  can  clear from the beginning of the line to the current
   position inclusive, leaving the cursor where  it  is,  this  should  be
   given  as  el1.  If the terminal can clear from the current position to
   the end of the display, then this should be given as ed.   Ed  is  only
   defined from the first column of a line.  (Thus, it can be simulated by
   a request to delete a large number of  lines,  if  a  true  ed  is  not

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
   If  the  terminal  can  open a new blank line before the line where the
   cursor is, this should be given as il1; this  is  done  only  from  the
   first  position  of  a  line.  The cursor must then appear on the newly
   blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line which  the  cursor  is
   on,  then this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the first
   position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 which take
   a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as
   il and dl.

   If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like  the  vt100)  the
   command  to  set  this  can be described with the csr capability, which
   takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling region.
   The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.

   It  is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr on
   a properly chosen region; the sc  and  rc  (save  and  restore  cursor)
   commands may be useful for ensuring that your synthesized insert/delete
   string does not move the  cursor.   (Note  that  the  ncurses(3NCURSES)
   library  does  this  synthesis  automatically,  so you need not compose
   insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

   Yet another way to construct insert  and  delete  might  be  to  use  a
   combination  of  index  with  the  memory-lock  feature  found  on some
   terminals  (like  the  HP-700/90  series,  which   however   also   has

   Inserting  lines  at  the  top or bottom of the screen can also be done
   using ri or ind on many terminals without a  true  insert/delete  line,
   and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

   The  boolean  non_dest_scroll_region  should  be  set if each scrolling
   window is effectively a view port on a screen-sized  canvas.   To  test
   for  this  capability,  create  a scrolling region in the middle of the
   screen, write something to the bottom line, move the cursor to the  top
   of  the region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled
   off the bottom of the region by the ri re-appears,  then  scrolling  is
   non-destructive.   System  V  and XSI Curses expect that ind, ri, indn,
   and  rin  will  simulate  destructive  scrolling;  their  documentation
   cautions  you  not  to  define  csr  unless  this is true.  This curses
   implementation is more  liberal  and  will  do  explicit  erases  after
   scrolling if ndstr is defined.

   If  the  terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory,
   which all commands affect, it should  be  given  as  the  parameterized
   string  wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines in
   memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

   If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability
   should  be  given;  if  display  memory  can be retained below, then db
   should be given.  These indicate that deleting a line or scrolling  may
   bring  non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back with ri may
   bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
   There are two basic kinds of  intelligent  terminals  with  respect  to
   insert/delete  character  which  can  be described using terminfo.  The
   most  common  insert/delete  character  operations  affect   only   the
   characters  on the current line and shift characters off the end of the
   line rigidly.  Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the  Perkin
   Elmer  Owl,  make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the
   screen, shifting upon an insert or delete only to an untyped  blank  on
   the  screen  which  is  either  eliminated,  or expanded to two untyped

   You can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the  screen
   and  then  typing  text separated by cursor motions.  Type "abc    def"
   using local cursor motions (not  spaces)  between  the  "abc"  and  the
   "def".   Then position the cursor before the "abc" and put the terminal
   in insert mode.  If typing characters causes the rest of  the  line  to
   shift  rigidly  and  characters to fall off the end, then your terminal
   does not distinguish between blanks  and  untyped  positions.   If  the
   "abc"  shifts over to the "def" which then move together around the end
   of the current line and onto the next  as  you  insert,  you  have  the
   second  type  of  terminal,  and  should  give the capability in, which
   stands for "insert null".

   While these are two logically  separate  attributes  (one  line  versus
   multi-line  insert  mode,  and  special treatment of untyped spaces) we
   have seen no terminals whose insert mode cannot be described  with  the
   single attribute.

   Terminfo  can  describe  both  terminals which have an insert mode, and
   terminals which send a simple sequence to open a blank position on  the
   current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.  Give
   as rmir the sequence to leave  insert  mode.   Now  give  as  ich1  any
   sequence  needed  to  be  sent  just before sending the character to be
   inserted.  Most terminals with a true insert mode will not  give  ich1;
   terminals  which  send a sequence to open a screen position should give
   it here.

   If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable  to  ich1.
   Technically,  you  should  not  give  both unless the terminal actually
   requires both to be used in combination.  Accordingly, some  non-curses
   applications  get  confused if both are present; the symptom is doubled
   characters in an update using insert.  This requirement  is  now  rare;
   most  ich  sequences do not require previous smir, and most smir insert
   modes do not require ich1 before each character.   Therefore,  the  new
   curses  actually  assumes this is the case and uses either rmir/smir or
   ich/ich1 as appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write an  entry
   to  be  used  under  new curses for a terminal old enough to need both,
   include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

   If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds
   in  ip (a string option).  Any other sequence which may need to be sent
   after an insert of a single character may also be given in ip.  If your
   terminal  needs  both  to be placed into an "insert mode" and a special
   code to precede each inserted character, then both smir/rmir  and  ich1
   can  be  given,  and  both  will be used.  The ich capability, with one
   parameter, n, will repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

   If padding is necessary between characters typed while  not  in  insert
   mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

   It  is  occasionally  necessary  to move around while in insert mode to
   delete characters on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab  after  the
   insertion  position).   If  your terminal allows motion while in insert
   mode you can give the capability mir to  speed  up  inserting  in  this
   case.   Omitting  mir  will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably
   Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the  way  their  insert  mode

   Finally,  you  can  specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch with
   one parameter, n, to delete n characters, and  delete  mode  by  giving
   smdc  and  rmdc  to  enter  and exit delete mode (any mode the terminal
   needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

   A command to erase n characters  (equivalent  to  outputting  n  blanks
   without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
   If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
   be represented in a number of different ways.  You  should  choose  one
   display  form  as  standout  mode,  representing a good, high contrast,
   easy-on-the-eyes, format for  highlighting  error  messages  and  other
   attention  getters.   (If  you  have a choice, reverse video plus half-
   bright is good, or reverse video alone.)  The sequences  to  enter  and
   exit  standout  mode  are given as smso and rmso, respectively.  If the
   code to change into or out of standout mode  leaves  one  or  even  two
   blank  spaces  on  the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then
   xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

   Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and
   rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the current
   character and move the cursor one space  to  the  right,  such  as  the
   Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

   Other  capabilities  to  enter various highlighting modes include blink
   (blinking) bold (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or  half-bright)  invis
   (blanking  or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse video) sgr0
   (turn off all attribute modes) smacs  (enter  alternate  character  set
   mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on any of
   these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

   If there is a sequence to set arbitrary  combinations  of  modes,  this
   should  be  given  as  sgr (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each
   parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute is  on
   or  off.  The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline, reverse,
   blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate  character  set.   Not  all
   modes  need  be  supported  by  sgr, only those for which corresponding
   separate attribute commands exist.

   For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

          tparm parameter      attribute        escape sequence

          none                 none             \E[0m
          p1                   standout         \E[0;1;7m
          p2                   underline        \E[0;4m
          p3                   reverse          \E[0;7m
          p4                   blink            \E[0;5m
          p5                   dim              not available

          p6                   bold             \E[0;1m
          p7                   invis            \E[0;8m
          p8                   protect          not used
          p9                   altcharset       ^O (off) ^N (on)

   We begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes,  since
   there  is  no quick way to determine whether they are active.  Standout
   is set up to be  the  combination  of  reverse  and  bold.   The  vt220
   terminal  has  a  protect  mode,  though it is not commonly used in sgr
   because it protects characters on the screen from the host's  erasures.
   The  altcharset  mode  also is different in that it is either ^O or ^N,
   depending on whether it is off or on.  If all modes are turned on,  the
   resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

   Some  sequences  are  common  to  different  modes.  For example, ;7 is
   output when either p1 or p3 is true, that is,  if  either  standout  or
   reverse modes are turned on.

   Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

        sequence             when to output      terminfo translation

        \E[0                 always              \E[0
        ;1                   if p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
        ;4                   if p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
        ;5                   if p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
        ;7                   if p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
        ;8                   if p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
        m                    always              m
        ^N or ^O             if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

   Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


   Remember  that  if  you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.  Also,
   some implementations rely on sgr  being  given  if  sgr0  is,  Not  all
   terminfo  entries  necessarily  have  an  sgr  string,  however.   Many
   terminfo entries are derived from termcap entries  which  have  no  sgr
   string.  The only drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap also
   assumes that sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

   Terminals  with  the  "magic  cookie"  glitch  (xmc)  deposit   special
   "cookies"  when  they  receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the
   display algorithm rather than having extra  bits  for  each  character.
   Some  terminals, such as the HP 2621, automatically leave standout mode
   when they move to a new line or  the  cursor  is  addressed.   Programs
   using  standout mode should exit standout mode before moving the cursor
   or sending a newline, unless the msgr capability, asserting that it  is
   safe to move in standout mode, is present.

   If  the  terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
   quietly (a bell replacement) then this can be given as flash;  it  must
   not move the cursor.

   If  the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is not
   on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking underline into
   an  easier  to  find block or blinking underline) give this sequence as
   cvvis.  If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give
   that  as  civis.  The capability cnorm should be given which undoes the
   effects of both of these modes.

   If your terminal correctly generates  underlined  characters  (with  no
   special  codes  needed)  even  though  it does not overstrike, then you
   should give the capability ul.  If  a  character  overstriking  another
   leaves  both  characters  on the screen, specify the capability os.  If
   overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by
   giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
   If  the  terminal  has  a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are
   pressed, this information can be given.  Note that it is  not  possible
   to handle terminals where the keypad only works in local (this applies,
   for example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad can be  set
   to  transmit  or  not  transmit,  give  these  codes  as smkx and rmkx.
   Otherwise the keypad is assumed to always transmit.

   The codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up  arrow,  down  arrow,
   and  home  keys  can  be given as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome
   respectively.  If there are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the
   codes  they  send  can  be given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these keys
   have labels other than the default f0 through f10, the  labels  can  be
   given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

   The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be given:

   *   kll (home down),

   *   kbs (backspace),

   *   ktbc (clear all tabs),

   *   kctab (clear the tab stop in this column),

   *   kclr (clear screen or erase key),

   *   kdch1 (delete character),

   *   kdl1 (delete line),

   *   krmir (exit insert mode),

   *   kel (clear to end of line),

   *   ked (clear to end of screen),

   *   kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode),

   *   kil1 (insert line),

   *   knp (next page),

   *   kpp (previous page),

   *   kind (scroll forward/down),

   *   kri (scroll backward/up),

   *   khts (set a tab stop in this column).

   In  addition,  if  the  keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the
   four arrow keys, the other five keys can be given  as  ka1,  ka3,  kb2,
   kc1,  and  kc3.   These  keys  are  useful when the effects of a 3 by 3
   directional pad are needed.

   Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.
   A  string to program screen labels should be specified as pln.  Each of
   these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to  program
   (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.  Function key numbers
   out of this range may program undefined keys in  a  terminal  dependent
   manner.   The  difference between the capabilities is that pfkey causes
   pressing the given key to be the same as  the  user  typing  the  given
   string;  pfloc  causes  the  string  to  be executed by the terminal in
   local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.

   The capabilities nlab, lw and lh  define  the  number  of  programmable
   screen  labels  and  their  width and height.  If there are commands to
   turn the labels on and off, give  them  in  smln  and  rmln.   smln  is
   normally  output  after one or more pln sequences to make sure that the
   change becomes visible.

   Tabs and Initialization
   If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to  the  next
   tab  stop can be given as ht (usually control I).  A "back-tab" command
   which moves leftward to the preceding tab stop can be given as cbt.  By
   convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being expanded
   by the computer rather than being sent to the terminal, programs should
   not use ht or cbt even if they are present, since the user may not have
   the tab stops properly set.  If the terminal has  hardware  tabs  which
   are  initially  set every n spaces when the terminal is powered up, the
   numeric parameter it is given, showing the number of  spaces  the  tabs
   are  set  to.   This  is normally used by the tset command to determine
   whether to set the mode for hardware tab expansion, and whether to  set
   the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab stops that can be saved in non-
   volatile memory, the terminfo description  can  assume  that  they  are
   properly set.

   Other  capabilities  include  is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings
   for the terminal, iprog, the path name  of  a  program  to  be  run  to
   initialize  the  terminal,  and  if, the name of a file containing long
   initialization strings.  These strings are expected to set the terminal
   into  modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.  They
   are normally sent to the terminal, by  the  init  option  of  the  tput
   program,  each  time  the  user  logs  in.  They will be printed in the
   following order:

          run the program

          output is1 is2

          set the margins using
                 mgc, smgl and smgr

          set tabs using
                 tbc and hts

          print the file

          and finally
                 output is3.

   Most initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal  modes  can  be
   set  up  without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in
   is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.

   A set of sequences that does a harder  reset  from  a  totally  unknown
   state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to is1 , is2 , if
   and is3 respectively.  These strings are output by the  reset  program,
   which is used when the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands are
   normally placed in rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if  they  produce  annoying
   effects  on  the  screen  and  are  not necessary when logging in.  For
   example, the command  to  set  the  vt100  into  80-column  mode  would
   normally be part of is2, but it causes an annoying glitch of the screen
   and is not normally needed since the terminal is usually already in  80
   column mode.

   The  reset  program  writes  strings including iprog, etc., in the same
   order as the init program, using rs1, etc., instead of  is1,  etc.   If
   any  of  rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability strings are missing, the
   reset  program  falls  back  upon  the   corresponding   initialization
   capability string.

   If  there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as
   tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current column
   of  every  row).   If a more complex sequence is needed to set the tabs
   than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in is2 or if.

   Delays and Padding
   Many older and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF  or  DTR
   handshaking,  including  hard copy terminals and some very archaic CRTs
   (including, for  example,  DEC  VT100s).   These  may  require  padding
   characters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

   If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is, it
   automatically emits ^S back to the host  when  its  input  buffers  are
   close  to  full),  set xon.  This capability suppresses the emission of
   padding.  You  can  also  set  it  for  memory-mapped  console  devices
   effectively that do not have a speed limit.  Padding information should
   still be included so that routines  can  make  better  decisions  about
   relative costs, but actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

   If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
   below the value of pb.  If the entry has no  padding  baud  rate,  then
   whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by xon.

   If  the  terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
   then this can be given as pad.  Only the first  character  of  the  pad
   string is used.

   Status Lines
   Some  terminals  have an extra "status line" which is not normally used
   by software (and thus not counted in the terminal's lines capability).

   The simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but  not
   part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a
   status line of this kind, as would  a  24-line  VT100  with  a  23-line
   scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation is indicated
   by the hs capability.

   Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to  access  the
   status  line.  These may be expressed as a string with single parameter
   tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on the  status
   line.   The  capability  fsl  must  return  to  the  main-screen cursor
   positions before the last tsl.  You may need to embed the string values
   of  sc  (save  cursor)  and  rc  (restore  cursor)  in  tsl  and fsl to
   accomplish this.

   The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as  the  width
   of  the  terminal.   If  this  is  untrue,  you can specify it with the
   numeric capability wsl.

   A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

   The boolean capability eslok specifies  that  escape  sequences,  tabs,
   etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

   The  ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these capabilities.
   They are documented here in case they ever become important.

   Line Graphics
   Many terminals have alternate character sets useful for  forms-drawing.
   Terminfo  and  curses  build  in  support  for  the  drawing characters
   supported by the VT100, with  some  characters  from  the  AT&T  4410v1
   added.   This  alternate  character  set  may  be specified by the acsc

   Glyph                           ACS                Ascii         VT100
   Name                            Name               Default       Name

   UK pound sign                   ACS_STERLING       f             }
   arrow pointing down             ACS_DARROW         v             .
   arrow pointing left             ACS_LARROW         <             ,
   arrow pointing right            ACS_RARROW         >             +
   arrow pointing up               ACS_UARROW         ^             -
   board of squares                ACS_BOARD          #             h
   bullet                          ACS_BULLET         o             ~
   checker board (stipple)         ACS_CKBOARD        :             a
   degree symbol                   ACS_DEGREE         \             f
   diamond                         ACS_DIAMOND        +             `
   greater-than-or-equal-to        ACS_GEQUAL         >             z
   greek pi                        ACS_PI             *             {
   horizontal line                 ACS_HLINE          -             q
   lantern symbol                  ACS_LANTERN        #             i
   large plus or crossover         ACS_PLUS           +             n
   less-than-or-equal-to           ACS_LEQUAL         <             y
   lower left corner               ACS_LLCORNER       +             m
   lower right corner              ACS_LRCORNER       +             j
   not-equal                       ACS_NEQUAL         !             |
   plus/minus                      ACS_PLMINUS        #             g
   scan line 1                     ACS_S1             ~             o
   scan line 3                     ACS_S3             -             p
   scan line 7                     ACS_S7             -             r
   scan line 9                     ACS_S9             _             s
   solid square block              ACS_BLOCK          #             0
   tee pointing down               ACS_TTEE           +             w
   tee pointing left               ACS_RTEE           +             u
   tee pointing right              ACS_LTEE           +             t
   tee pointing up                 ACS_BTEE           +             v
   upper left corner               ACS_ULCORNER       +             l
   upper right corner              ACS_URCORNER       +             k
   vertical line                   ACS_VLINE          |             x

   The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add  a  column
   to  a  copy of this table for your terminal, giving the character which
   (when emitted between smacs/rmacs switches) will  be  rendered  as  the
   corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal character
   pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.

   Color Handling
   Most  color  terminals  are  either  "Tektronix-like"   or   "HP-like".
   Tektronix-like  terminals  have  a  predefined set of N colors (where N
   usually 8),  and  can  set  character-cell  foreground  and  background
   characters  independently,  mixing them into N * N color-pairs.  On HP-
   like terminals,  the  use  must  set  each  color  pair  up  separately
   (foreground  and  background  are not independently settable).  Up to M
   color-pairs may be set up from 2*M different  colors.   ANSI-compatible
   terminals are Tektronix-like.

   Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The
   numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify the  maximum  numbers  of
   colors  and  color-pairs  that can be displayed simultaneously.  The op
   (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors to their
   default  values  for  the terminal.  The oc string resets all colors or
   color-pairs to their default values for the terminal.   Some  terminals
   (including  many  PC  terminal  emulators)  erase screen areas with the
   current background color rather than the power-up  default  background;
   these should have the boolean capability bce.

   To  change  the  current foreground or background color on a Tektronix-
   type terminal, use setaf (set ANSI  foreground)  and  setab  (set  ANSI
   background)  or setf (set foreground) and setb (set background).  These
   take one parameter, the color number.  The SVr4 documentation describes
   only  setaf/setab;  the  XPG4 draft says that "If the terminal supports
   ANSI escape sequences to set background and foreground, they should  be
   coded as setaf and setab, respectively.  If the terminal supports other
   escape sequences to set background and foreground, they should be coded
   as setf and setb, respectively.  The vidputs() function and the refresh
   functions use setaf and setab if they are defined."

   The setaf/setab  and  setf/setb  capabilities  take  a  single  numeric
   argument each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab are portably defined
   as follows (the middle column is the symbolic #define available in  the
   header  for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The terminal hardware is
   free to map these as it likes,  but  the  RGB  values  indicate  normal
   locations in color space.

                Color       #define       Value       RGB
                black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                red       COLOR_RED         1     max,0,0
                green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      3     max,max,0
                blue      COLOR_BLUE        4     0,0,max
                magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                cyan      COLOR_CYAN        6     0,max,max
                white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

   The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond to a different
   mapping, i.e.,

                Color       #define       Value       RGB
                black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                blue      COLOR_BLUE        1     0,0,max
                green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                cyan      COLOR_CYAN        3     0,max,max
                red       COLOR_RED         4     max,0,0
                magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      6     max,max,0
                white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

   It is important to not confuse the  two  sets  of  color  capabilities;
   otherwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

   On  an  HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number parameter to
   set which color pair is current.

   On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability  ccc  may  be  present  to
   indicate that colors can be modified.  If so, the initc capability will
   take a color number (0 to colors - 1)and three  more  parameters  which
   describe   the   color.    These  three  parameters  default  to  being
   interpreted  as  RGB  (Red,  Green,  Blue)  values.   If  the   boolean
   capability  hls  is  present,  they are instead as HLS (Hue, Lightness,
   Saturation) indices.  The ranges are terminal-dependent.

   On an HP-like terminal, initp may give  a  capability  for  changing  a
   color-pair  value.   It will take seven parameters; a color-pair number
   (0 to max_pairs - 1), and two triples describing first  background  and
   then foreground colors.  These parameters must be (Red, Green, Blue) or
   (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

   On some color terminals,  colors  collide  with  highlights.   You  can
   register  these collisions with the ncv capability.  This is a bit-mask
   of  attributes  not  to  be  used  when  colors   are   enabled.    The
   correspondence with the attributes understood by curses is as follows:

            Attribute              Bit   Decimal      Set by
            A_STANDOUT             0     1            sgr
            A_UNDERLINE            1     2            sgr
            A_REVERSE              2     4            sgr
            A_BLINK                3     8            sgr
            A_DIM                  4     16           sgr
            A_BOLD                 5     32           sgr
            A_INVIS                6     64           sgr
            A_PROTECT              7     128          sgr
            A_ALTCHARSET           8     256          sgr

            A_HORIZONTAL           9     512          sgr1
            A_LEFT                 10    1024         sgr1
            A_LOW                  11    2048         sgr1
            A_RIGHT                12    4096         sgr1
            A_TOP                  13    8192         sgr1
            A_VERTICAL             14    16384        sgr1
            A_ITALIC               15    32768        sitm

   For  example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute collides
   with the foreground color blue and is  not  available  in  color  mode.
   These should have an ncv capability of 2.

   SVr4  curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and optimizes
   the output in favor of colors.

   If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as  a  pad,
   then  this  can  be  given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
   string is used.  If the terminal does not have a pad character, specify
   npc.   Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible PC variable;
   though the application may set this value to  something  other  than  a
   null,  ncurses will test npc first and use napms if the terminal has no
   pad character.

   If the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be  indicated
   with  hu  (half-line  up)  and  hd (half-line down).  This is primarily
   useful for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy  terminals.   If  a
   hard-copy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give this as
   ff (usually control L).

   If there is a command to repeat a given character  a  given  number  of
   times   (to   save  time  transmitting  a  large  number  of  identical
   characters) this can be indicated with the  parameterized  string  rep.
   The  first  parameter is the character to be repeated and the second is
   the number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is
   the same as "xxxxxxxxxx".

   If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX
   4025, this can be indicated with cmdch.  A prototype command  character
   is  chosen  which is used in all capabilities.  This character is given
   in the cmdch capability to identify it.  The  following  convention  is
   supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a
   CC variable, and if found, all occurrences of the  prototype  character
   are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

   Terminal  descriptions  that  do not represent a specific kind of known
   terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and  network,  should  include
   the  gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they do
   not know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not  apply
   to  virtual  terminal  descriptions  for which the escape sequences are

   If the terminal has a "meta key" which acts as a shift key, setting the
   8th  bit  of any character transmitted, this fact can be indicated with
   km.  Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th bit is parity and  it
   will  usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this "meta mode" on
   and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

   If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at
   once,  the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A value
   of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there
   is still more memory than fits on the screen.

   If  the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual terminal
   protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

   Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to  the
   terminal  can  be  given as mc0: print the contents of the screen, mc4:
   turn off the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.  When  the  printer
   is  on,  all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the printer.  It
   is undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal  screen
   when  the  printer  is  on.   A variation mc5p takes one parameter, and
   leaves the printer on for as  many  characters  as  the  value  of  the
   parameter, then turns the printer off.  The parameter should not exceed
   255.  All text, including mc4, is transparently passed to  the  printer
   while an mc5p is in effect.

   Glitches and Braindamage
   Hazeltine  terminals, which do not allow "~" characters to be displayed
   should indicate hz.

   Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an am  wrap,  such
   as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

   If  el  is  required  to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing
   normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

   Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
   should  indicate  xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the variable indicating
   this  is  now  "dest_tabs_magic_smso";  in  older  versions,   it   was
   teleray_glitch.   This  glitch  is  also  taken  to mean that it is not
   possible to position the cursor on top of a  "magic  cookie",  that  to
   erase  standout  mode  it is instead necessary to use delete and insert
   line.  The ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

   The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the  escape
   or  control  C  characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1 key is used
   for escape and f2 for control C.  (Only  certain  Superbees  have  this
   problem,  depending on the ROM.)  Note that in older terminfo versions,
   this capability was called "beehive_glitch"; it is now "no_esc_ctl_c".

   Other specific terminal  problems  may  be  corrected  by  adding  more
   capabilities of the form xx.

   Similar Terminals
   If  there  are  two  very  similar  terminals, one (the variant) can be
   defined  as  being  just  like  the  other  (the  base)  with   certain
   exceptions.   In  the  definition of the variant, the string capability
   use can be given with the name of the base terminal.  The  capabilities
   given  before  use  override  those  in the base type named by use.  If
   there are multiple use capabilities, they are merged in reverse  order.
   That  is,  the rightmost use reference is processed first, then the one
   to its left, and so forth.  Capabilities given explicitly in the  entry
   override those brought in by use references.

   A  capability  can  be  canceled  by placing xx@ to the left of the use
   reference that imports it, where xx is the  capability.   For  example,
   the entry

          2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

   defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and
   hence does not turn on the function key labels  when  in  visual  mode.
   This  is  useful  for  different modes for a terminal, or for different
   user preferences.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
   Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date,  no  entry
   has   even   approached   terminfo's  4096-byte  string-table  maximum.
   Unfortunately, the termcap translations are much more strictly  limited
   (to 1023 bytes), thus termcap translations of long terminfo entries can
   cause problems.

   The man pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent()  instruct  the
   user  to  allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.  The entry
   gets null-terminated by the termcap library, so that makes the  maximum
   safe  length  for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending on what
   the application and the termcap library being used does, and  where  in
   the  termcap file the terminal type that tgetent() is searching for is,
   several bad things can happen.

   Some termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find  an
   entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others do not; others truncate the
   entries to 1023 bytes.  Some application programs  allocate  more  than
   the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others do not.

   Each  termcap  entry has two important sizes associated with it: before
   "tc" expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability  that
   tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to add on
   its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability,
   then of course the two lengths are the same.

   The  "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because it
   affects more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is  the
   length  of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus the backslash-
   newline pairs, which tgetent()  strips  out  while  reading  it.   Some
   termcap  libraries  strip  off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does
   not).  Now suppose:

   *   a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

   *   and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

   *   and the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU)  reads
       the  whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length, to see
       if it is the entry it wants,

   *   and tgetent() is searching for a terminal type that either  is  the
       long  entry,  appears  in the termcap file after the long entry, or
       does not appear in the file at all (so that tgetent() has to search
       the whole termcap file).

   Then  tgetent()  will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack, and probably
   core  dump  the  program.   Programs  like  telnet   are   particularly
   vulnerable;  modern  telnets  pass  along values like the terminal type
   automatically.  The results are almost as undesirable  with  a  termcap
   library,  like SunOS 4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages
   when it reads an overly long  termcap  entry.   If  a  termcap  library
   truncates  long entries, like OSF/1 3.0, it is immune to dying here but
   will return incorrect data for the terminal.

   The "after tc expansion" length will  have  a  similar  effect  to  the
   above, but only for people who actually set TERM to that terminal type,
   since tgetent() only does "tc" expansion once it is found the  terminal
   type it was looking for, not while searching.

   In  summary,  a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can cause,
   on various combinations of termcap libraries and applications,  a  core
   dump,  warnings, or incorrect operation.  If it is too long even before
   "tc" expansion, it will have this effect even for users of  some  other
   terminal  types  and  users whose TERM variable does not have a termcap

   When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses  implementation  of
   tic(1)  issues  warning  messages  when  the pre-tc length of a termcap
   translation is too long.  The -c (check) option  also  checks  resolved
   (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
   It  is  not  wise  to  count  on portability of binary terminfo entries
   between commercial UNIX versions.  The problem is  that  there  are  at
   least  two  versions  of  terminfo (under HP-UX and AIX) which diverged
   from  System  V  terminfo  after  SVr1,  and   have   added   extension
   capabilities  to  the  string table that (in the binary format) collide
   with System V and XSI Curses extensions.


   Searching   for   terminal   descriptions   in   $HOME/.terminfo    and
   TERMINFO_DIRS is not supported by older implementations.

   Some  SVr4  curses  implementations,  and  all previous to SVr4, do not
   interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

   SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether msgr licenses  movement  while  in  an
   alternate-character-set  mode  (such modes may, among other things, map
   CR and NL to characters  that  do  not  trigger  local  motions).   The
   ncurses  implementation  ignores  msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This raises
   the  possibility  that  an  XPG4  implementation  making  the  opposite
   interpretation  may need terminfo entries made for ncurses to have msgr
   turned off.

   The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character modes
   in  a  slightly  non-standard way to get better update efficiency.  See
   the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

   The parameter substitutions for set_clock  and  display_clock  are  not
   documented  in  SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.  They are deduced from
   the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

   Be careful assigning  the  kmous  capability.   The  ncurses  wants  to
   interpret  it  as  KEY_MOUSE,  for  use by terminals and emulators like
   xterm that can return mouse-tracking information in the  keyboard-input

   X/Open  Curses  does  not  mention italics.  Portable applications must
   assume that  numeric  capabilities  are  signed  16-bit  values.   This
   includes  the  no_color_video  (ncv)  capability.  The 32768 mask value
   used for italics with ncv can be confused with an absent  or  cancelled
   ncv.   If  italics  should work with colors, then the ncv value must be
   specified, even if it is zero.

   Different commercial ports of terminfo  and  curses  support  different
   subsets  of  the  XSI  Curses  standard  and  (in some cases) different
   extension sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

   SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

   SGI -- Supports the SVr4 set, adds  one  undocumented  extended  string
   capability (set_pglen).

   SVr1,   Ultrix  --  These  support  a  restricted  subset  of  terminfo
   capabilities.  The  booleans  end  with  xon_xoff;  the  numerics  with
   width_status_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

   HP/UX   --  Supports  the  SVr1  subset,  plus  the  SVr[234]  numerics
   num_labels, label_height, label_width, plus function  keys  11  through
   63,  plus  plab_norm,  label_on,  and label_off, plus some incompatible
   extensions in the string table.

   AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63, plus
   a number of incompatible string table extensions.

   OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.


   /etc/terminfo/?/*        files containing terminal descriptions


   tic(1),     infocmp(1),    ncurses(3NCURSES),    printf(3),    term(5).


   Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
   by Pavel Curtis.



Personal Opportunity - Free software gives you access to billions of dollars of software at no cost. Use this software for your business, personal use or to develop a profitable skill. Access to source code provides access to a level of capabilities/information that companies protect though copyrights. Open source is a core component of the Internet and it is available to you. Leverage the billions of dollars in resources and capabilities to build a career, establish a business or change the world. The potential is endless for those who understand the opportunity.

Business Opportunity - Goldman Sachs, IBM and countless large corporations are leveraging open source to reduce costs, develop products and increase their bottom lines. Learn what these companies know about open source and how open source can give you the advantage.

Free Software

Free Software provides computer programs and capabilities at no cost but more importantly, it provides the freedom to run, edit, contribute to, and share the software. The importance of free software is a matter of access, not price. Software at no cost is a benefit but ownership rights to the software and source code is far more significant.

Free Office Software - The Libre Office suite provides top desktop productivity tools for free. This includes, a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation engine, drawing and flowcharting, database and math applications. Libre Office is available for Linux or Windows.

Free Books

The Free Books Library is a collection of thousands of the most popular public domain books in an online readable format. The collection includes great classical literature and more recent works where the U.S. copyright has expired. These books are yours to read and use without restrictions.

Source Code - Want to change a program or know how it works? Open Source provides the source code for its programs so that anyone can use, modify or learn how to write those programs themselves. Visit the GNU source code repositories to download the source.


Study at Harvard, Stanford or MIT - Open edX provides free online courses from Harvard, MIT, Columbia, UC Berkeley and other top Universities. Hundreds of courses for almost all major subjects and course levels. Open edx also offers some paid courses and selected certifications.

Linux Manual Pages - A man or manual page is a form of software documentation found on Linux/Unix operating systems. Topics covered include computer programs (including library and system calls), formal standards and conventions, and even abstract concepts.