git-add - Add file contents to the index


   git add [--verbose | -v] [--dry-run | -n] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
             [--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
             [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing]
             [--chmod=(+|-)x] [--] [<pathspec>...]


   This command updates the index using the current content found in the
   working tree, to prepare the content staged for the next commit. It
   typically adds the current content of existing paths as a whole, but
   with some options it can also be used to add content with only part of
   the changes made to the working tree files applied, or remove paths
   that do not exist in the working tree anymore.

   The "index" holds a snapshot of the content of the working tree, and it
   is this snapshot that is taken as the contents of the next commit. Thus
   after making any changes to the working tree, and before running the
   commit command, you must use the add command to add any new or modified
   files to the index.

   This command can be performed multiple times before a commit. It only
   adds the content of the specified file(s) at the time the add command
   is run; if you want subsequent changes included in the next commit,
   then you must run git add again to add the new content to the index.

   The git status command can be used to obtain a summary of which files
   have changes that are staged for the next commit.

   The git add command will not add ignored files by default. If any
   ignored files were explicitly specified on the command line, git add
   will fail with a list of ignored files. Ignored files reached by
   directory recursion or filename globbing performed by Git (quote your
   globs before the shell) will be silently ignored. The git add command
   can be used to add ignored files with the -f (force) option.

   Please see git-commit(1) for alternative ways to add content to a


       Files to add content from. Fileglobs (e.g.  *.c) can be given to
       add all matching files. Also a leading directory name (e.g.  dir to
       add dir/file1 and dir/file2) can be given to update the index to
       match the current state of the directory as a whole (e.g.
       specifying dir will record not just a file dir/file1 modified in
       the working tree, a file dir/file2 added to the working tree, but
       also a file dir/file3 removed from the working tree. Note that
       older versions of Git used to ignore removed files; use --no-all
       option if you want to add modified or new files but ignore removed

   -n, --dry-run
       Don't actually add the file(s), just show if they exist and/or will
       be ignored.

   -v, --verbose
       Be verbose.

   -f, --force
       Allow adding otherwise ignored files.

   -i, --interactive
       Add modified contents in the working tree interactively to the
       index. Optional path arguments may be supplied to limit operation
       to a subset of the working tree. See "Interactive mode" for

   -p, --patch
       Interactively choose hunks of patch between the index and the work
       tree and add them to the index. This gives the user a chance to
       review the difference before adding modified contents to the index.

       This effectively runs add --interactive, but bypasses the initial
       command menu and directly jumps to the patch subcommand. See
       "Interactive mode" for details.

   -e, --edit
       Open the diff vs. the index in an editor and let the user edit it.
       After the editor was closed, adjust the hunk headers and apply the
       patch to the index.

       The intent of this option is to pick and choose lines of the patch
       to apply, or even to modify the contents of lines to be staged.
       This can be quicker and more flexible than using the interactive
       hunk selector. However, it is easy to confuse oneself and create a
       patch that does not apply to the index. See EDITING PATCHES below.

   -u, --update
       Update the index just where it already has an entry matching
       <pathspec>. This removes as well as modifies index entries to match
       the working tree, but adds no new files.

       If no <pathspec> is given when -u option is used, all tracked files
       in the entire working tree are updated (old versions of Git used to
       limit the update to the current directory and its subdirectories).

   -A, --all, --no-ignore-removal
       Update the index not only where the working tree has a file
       matching <pathspec> but also where the index already has an entry.
       This adds, modifies, and removes index entries to match the working

       If no <pathspec> is given when -A option is used, all files in the
       entire working tree are updated (old versions of Git used to limit
       the update to the current directory and its subdirectories).

   --no-all, --ignore-removal
       Update the index by adding new files that are unknown to the index
       and files modified in the working tree, but ignore files that have
       been removed from the working tree. This option is a no-op when no
       <pathspec> is used.

       This option is primarily to help users who are used to older
       versions of Git, whose "git add <pathspec>..." was a synonym for
       "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e. ignored removed files.

   -N, --intent-to-add
       Record only the fact that the path will be added later. An entry
       for the path is placed in the index with no content. This is useful
       for, among other things, showing the unstaged content of such files
       with git diff and committing them with git commit -a.

       Don't add the file(s), but only refresh their stat() information in
       the index.

       If some files could not be added because of errors indexing them,
       do not abort the operation, but continue adding the others. The
       command shall still exit with non-zero status. The configuration
       variable add.ignoreErrors can be set to true to make this the
       default behaviour.

       This option can only be used together with --dry-run. By using this
       option the user can check if any of the given files would be
       ignored, no matter if they are already present in the work tree or

       Override the executable bit of the added files. The executable bit
       is only changed in the index, the files on disk are left unchanged.

       This option can be used to separate command-line options from the
       list of files, (useful when filenames might be mistaken for
       command-line options).


   The optional configuration variable core.excludesFile indicates a path
   to a file containing patterns of file names to exclude from git-add,
   similar to $GIT_DIR/info/exclude. Patterns in the exclude file are used
   in addition to those in info/exclude. See gitignore(5).


   *   Adds content from all *.txt files under Documentation directory and
       its subdirectories:

           $ git add Documentation/\*.txt

       Note that the asterisk * is quoted from the shell in this example;
       this lets the command include the files from subdirectories of
       Documentation/ directory.

   *   Considers adding content from all git-*.sh scripts:

           $ git add git-*.sh

       Because this example lets the shell expand the asterisk (i.e. you
       are listing the files explicitly), it does not consider


   When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the output of
   the status subcommand, and then goes into its interactive command loop.

   The command loop shows the list of subcommands available, and gives a
   prompt "What now> ". In general, when the prompt ends with a single >,
   you can pick only one of the choices given and type return, like this:

           *** Commands ***
             1: status       2: update       3: revert       4: add untracked
             5: patch        6: diff         7: quit         8: help
           What now> 1

   You also could say s or sta or status above as long as the choice is

   The main command loop has 6 subcommands (plus help and quit).

       This shows the change between HEAD and index (i.e. what will be
       committed if you say git commit), and between index and working
       tree files (i.e. what you could stage further before git commit
       using git add) for each path. A sample output looks like this:

                         staged     unstaged path
                1:       binary      nothing foo.png
                2:     +403/-35        +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl

       It shows that foo.png has differences from HEAD (but that is binary
       so line count cannot be shown) and there is no difference between
       indexed copy and the working tree version (if the working tree
       version were also different, binary would have been shown in place
       of nothing). The other file, git-add--interactive.perl, has 403
       lines added and 35 lines deleted if you commit what is in the
       index, but working tree file has further modifications (one
       addition and one deletion).

       This shows the status information and issues an "Update>>" prompt.
       When the prompt ends with double >>, you can make more than one
       selection, concatenated with whitespace or comma. Also you can say
       ranges. E.g. "2-5 7,9" to choose 2,3,4,5,7,9 from the list. If the
       second number in a range is omitted, all remaining patches are
       taken. E.g. "7-" to choose 7,8,9 from the list. You can say * to
       choose everything.

       What you chose are then highlighted with *, like this:

                      staged     unstaged path
             1:       binary      nothing foo.png
           * 2:     +403/-35        +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl

       To remove selection, prefix the input with - like this:

           Update>> -2

       After making the selection, answer with an empty line to stage the
       contents of working tree files for selected paths in the index.

       This has a very similar UI to update, and the staged information
       for selected paths are reverted to that of the HEAD version.
       Reverting new paths makes them untracked.

   add untracked
       This has a very similar UI to update and revert, and lets you add
       untracked paths to the index.

       This lets you choose one path out of a status like selection. After
       choosing the path, it presents the diff between the index and the
       working tree file and asks you if you want to stage the change of
       each hunk. You can select one of the following options and type

           y - stage this hunk
           n - do not stage this hunk
           q - quit; do not stage this hunk or any of the remaining ones
           a - stage this hunk and all later hunks in the file
           d - do not stage this hunk or any of the later hunks in the file
           g - select a hunk to go to
           / - search for a hunk matching the given regex
           j - leave this hunk undecided, see next undecided hunk
           J - leave this hunk undecided, see next hunk
           k - leave this hunk undecided, see previous undecided hunk
           K - leave this hunk undecided, see previous hunk
           s - split the current hunk into smaller hunks
           e - manually edit the current hunk
           ? - print help

       After deciding the fate for all hunks, if there is any hunk that
       was chosen, the index is updated with the selected hunks.

       You can omit having to type return here, by setting the
       configuration variable interactive.singleKey to true.

       This lets you review what will be committed (i.e. between HEAD and


   Invoking git add -e or selecting e from the interactive hunk selector
   will open a patch in your editor; after the editor exits, the result is
   applied to the index. You are free to make arbitrary changes to the
   patch, but note that some changes may have confusing results, or even
   result in a patch that cannot be applied. If you want to abort the
   operation entirely (i.e., stage nothing new in the index), simply
   delete all lines of the patch. The list below describes some common
   things you may see in a patch, and which editing operations make sense
   on them.

   added content
       Added content is represented by lines beginning with "+". You can
       prevent staging any addition lines by deleting them.

   removed content
       Removed content is represented by lines beginning with "-". You can
       prevent staging their removal by converting the "-" to a " "

   modified content
       Modified content is represented by "-" lines (removing the old
       content) followed by "+" lines (adding the replacement content).
       You can prevent staging the modification by converting "-" lines to
       " ", and removing "+" lines. Beware that modifying only half of the
       pair is likely to introduce confusing changes to the index.

   There are also more complex operations that can be performed. But
   beware that because the patch is applied only to the index and not the
   working tree, the working tree will appear to "undo" the change in the
   index. For example, introducing a new line into the index that is in
   neither the HEAD nor the working tree will stage the new line for
   commit, but the line will appear to be reverted in the working tree.

   Avoid using these constructs, or do so with extreme caution.

   removing untouched content
       Content which does not differ between the index and working tree
       may be shown on context lines, beginning with a " " (space). You
       can stage context lines for removal by converting the space to a
       "-". The resulting working tree file will appear to re-add the

   modifying existing content
       One can also modify context lines by staging them for removal (by
       converting " " to "-") and adding a "+" line with the new content.
       Similarly, one can modify "+" lines for existing additions or
       modifications. In all cases, the new modification will appear
       reverted in the working tree.

   new content
       You may also add new content that does not exist in the patch;
       simply add new lines, each starting with "+". The addition will
       appear reverted in the working tree.

   There are also several operations which should be avoided entirely, as
   they will make the patch impossible to apply:

   *   adding context (" ") or removal ("-") lines

   *   deleting context or removal lines

   *   modifying the contents of context or removal lines


   git-status(1) git-rm(1) git-reset(1) git-mv(1) git-commit(1) git-


   Part of the git(1) suite


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