git-commit - Record changes to the repository


   git commit [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend]
              [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
              [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
              [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
              [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
              [-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]


   Stores the current contents of the index in a new commit along with a
   log message from the user describing the changes.

   The content to be added can be specified in several ways:

    1. by using git add to incrementally "add" changes to the index before
       using the commit command (Note: even modified files must be

    2. by using git rm to remove files from the working tree and the
       index, again before using the commit command;

    3. by listing files as arguments to the commit command (without
       --interactive or --patch switch), in which case the commit will
       ignore changes staged in the index, and instead record the current
       content of the listed files (which must already be known to Git);

    4. by using the -a switch with the commit command to automatically
       "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
       listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index
       that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform the
       actual commit;

    5. by using the --interactive or --patch switches with the commit
       command to decide one by one which files or hunks should be part of
       the commit in addition to contents in the index, before finalizing
       the operation. See the "Interactive Mode" section of git-add(1) to
       learn how to operate these modes.

   The --dry-run option can be used to obtain a summary of what is
   included by any of the above for the next commit by giving the same set
   of parameters (options and paths).

   If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after that,
   you can recover from it with git reset.


   -a, --all
       Tell the command to automatically stage files that have been
       modified and deleted, but new files you have not told Git about are
       not affected.

   -p, --patch
       Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose which
       changes to commit. See git-add(1) for details.

   -C <commit>, --reuse-message=<commit>
       Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message and the
       authorship information (including the timestamp) when creating the

   -c <commit>, --reedit-message=<commit>
       Like -C, but with -c the editor is invoked, so that the user can
       further edit the commit message.

       Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The
       commit message will be the subject line from the specified commit
       with a prefix of "fixup! ". See git-rebase(1) for details.

       Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The
       commit message subject line is taken from the specified commit with
       a prefix of "squash! ". Can be used with additional commit message
       options (-m/-c/-C/-F). See git-rebase(1) for details.

       When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a a
       conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the
       resulting commit now belongs to the committer. This also renews the
       author timestamp.

       When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See git-
       status(1) for details. Implies --dry-run.

       Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.

       When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready format.
       See git-status(1) for details. Implies --dry-run.

       When doing a dry-run, give the output in a the long-format. Implies

   -z, --null
       When showing short or porcelain status output, terminate entries in
       the status output with NUL, instead of LF. If no format is given,
       implies the --porcelain output format.

   -F <file>, --file=<file>
       Take the commit message from the given file. Use - to read the
       message from the standard input.

       Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the
       standard A U Thor <> format. Otherwise <author>
       is assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for an existing
       commit by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i --author=<author>);
       the commit author is then copied from the first such commit found.

       Override the author date used in the commit.

   -m <msg>, --message=<msg>
       Use the given <msg> as the commit message. If multiple -m options
       are given, their values are concatenated as separate paragraphs.

   -t <file>, --template=<file>
       When editing the commit message, start the editor with the contents
       in the given file. The commit.template configuration variable is
       often used to give this option implicitly to the command. This
       mechanism can be used by projects that want to guide participants
       with some hints on what to write in the message in what order. If
       the user exits the editor without editing the message, the commit
       is aborted. This has no effect when a message is given by other
       means, e.g. with the -m or -F options.

   -s, --signoff
       Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
       log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the project, but
       it typically certifies that committer has the rights to submit this
       work under the same license and agrees to a Developer Certificate
       of Origin (see for more

   -n, --no-verify
       This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks. See also

       Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its sole
       parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you from
       making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and is
       primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts.

       Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign SCM
       interface scripts. It allows you to create a commit with an empty
       commit message without using plumbing commands like git-commit-

       This option determines how the supplied commit message should be
       cleaned up before committing. The <mode> can be strip, whitespace,
       verbatim, scissors or default.

           Strip leading and trailing empty lines, trailing whitespace,
           commentary and collapse consecutive empty lines.

           Same as strip except #commentary is not removed.

           Do not change the message at all.

           Same as whitespace, except that everything from (and including)
           the line "# ------------------------ >8
           ------------------------" is truncated if the message is to be
           edited. "#" can be customized with core.commentChar.

           Same as strip if the message is to be edited. Otherwise

       The default can be changed by the commit.cleanup configuration
       variable (see git-config(1)).

   -e, --edit
       The message taken from file with -F, command line with -m, and from
       commit object with -C are usually used as the commit log message
       unmodified. This option lets you further edit the message taken
       from these sources.

       Use the selected commit message without launching an editor. For
       example, git commit --amend --no-edit amends a commit without
       changing its commit message.

       Replace the tip of the current branch by creating a new commit. The
       recorded tree is prepared as usual (including the effect of the -i
       and -o options and explicit pathspec), and the message from the
       original commit is used as the starting point, instead of an empty
       message, when no other message is specified from the command line
       via options such as -m, -F, -c, etc. The new commit has the same
       parents and author as the current one (the --reset-author option
       can countermand this).

       It is a rough equivalent for:

                   $ git reset --soft HEAD^
                   $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
                   $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD

       but can be used to amend a merge commit.

       You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you
       amend a commit that has already been published. (See the
       "RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase(1).)

       Bypass the post-rewrite hook.

   -i, --include
       Before making a commit out of staged contents so far, stage the
       contents of paths given on the command line as well. This is
       usually not what you want unless you are concluding a conflicted

   -o, --only
       Make a commit by taking the updated working tree contents of the
       paths specified on the command line, disregarding any contents that
       have been staged for other paths. This is the default mode of
       operation of git commit if any paths are given on the command line,
       in which case this option can be omitted. If this option is
       specified together with --amend, then no paths need to be
       specified, which can be used to amend the last commit without
       committing changes that have already been staged.

   -u[<mode>], --untracked-files[=<mode>]
       Show untracked files.

       The mode parameter is optional (defaults to all), and is used to
       specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
       default is normal, i.e. show untracked files and directories.

       The possible options are:

       *   no - Show no untracked files

       *   normal - Shows untracked files and directories

       *   all - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.

           The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles
           configuration variable documented in git-config(1).

   -v, --verbose
       Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what would be
       committed at the bottom of the commit message template to help the
       user describe the commit by reminding what changes the commit has.
       Note that this diff output doesn't have its lines prefixed with #.
       This diff will not be a part of the commit message. See the
       commit.verbose configuration variable in git-config(1).

       If specified twice, show in addition the unified diff between what
       would be committed and the worktree files, i.e. the unstaged
       changes to tracked files.

   -q, --quiet
       Suppress commit summary message.

       Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are to be
       committed, paths with local changes that will be left uncommitted
       and paths that are untracked.

       Include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message template
       when using an editor to prepare the commit message. Defaults to on,
       but can be used to override configuration variable commit.status.

       Do not include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message
       template when using an editor to prepare the default commit

   -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]
       GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument is optional and defaults to
       the committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the
       option without a space.

       Countermand commit.gpgSign configuration variable that is set to
       force each and every commit to be signed.

       Do not interpret any more arguments as options.

       When files are given on the command line, the command commits the
       contents of the named files, without recording the changes already
       staged. The contents of these files are also staged for the next
       commit on top of what have been staged before.


   The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables and the
   --date option support the following date formats:

   Git internal format
       It is <unix timestamp> <time zone offset>, where <unix timestamp>
       is the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch.  <time zone offset>
       is a positive or negative offset from UTC. For example CET (which
       is 2 hours ahead UTC) is +0200.

   RFC 2822
       The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for example
       Thu, 07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200.

   ISO 8601
       Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example
       2005-04-07T22:13:13. The parser accepts a space instead of the T
       character as well.

           In addition, the date part is accepted in the following
           formats: YYYY.MM.DD, MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM.YYYY.


   When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in your
   working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area called the
   "index" with git add. A file can be reverted back, only in the index
   but not in the working tree, to that of the last commit with git reset
   HEAD -- <file>, which effectively reverts git add and prevents the
   changes to this file from participating in the next commit. After
   building the state to be committed incrementally with these commands,
   git commit (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what has
   been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the command. An

       $ edit hello.c
       $ git rm goodbye.c
       $ git add hello.c
       $ git commit

   Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can tell git
   commit to notice the changes to the files whose contents are tracked in
   your working tree and do corresponding git add and git rm for you. That
   is, this example does the same as the earlier example if there is no
   other change in your working tree:

       $ edit hello.c
       $ rm goodbye.c
       $ git commit -a

   The command git commit -a first looks at your working tree, notices
   that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c, and performs
   necessary git add and git rm for you.

   After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the
   changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to git commit. When
   pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that only records the
   changes made to the named paths:

       $ edit hello.c hello.h
       $ git add hello.c hello.h
       $ edit Makefile
       $ git commit Makefile

   This makes a commit that records the modification to Makefile. The
   changes staged for hello.c and hello.h are not included in the
   resulting commit. However, their changes are not lost --- they are still
   staged and merely held back. After the above sequence, if you do:

       $ git commit

   this second commit would record the changes to hello.c and hello.h as

   After a merge (initiated by git merge or git pull) stops because of
   conflicts, cleanly merged paths are already staged to be committed for
   you, and paths that conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would
   have to first check which paths are conflicting with git status and
   after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would stage the
   result as usual with git add:

       $ git status | grep unmerged
       unmerged: hello.c
       $ edit hello.c
       $ git add hello.c

   After resolving conflicts and staging the result, git ls-files -u would
   stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done, run git commit
   to finally record the merge:

       $ git commit

   As with the case to record your own changes, you can use -a option to
   save typing. One difference is that during a merge resolution, you
   cannot use git commit with pathnames to alter the order the changes are
   committed, because the merge should be recorded as a single commit. In
   fact, the command refuses to run when given pathnames (but see -i


   Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message with
   a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the change,
   followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description. The text
   up to the first blank line in a commit message is treated as the commit
   title, and that title is used throughout Git. For example, git-format-
   patch(1) turns a commit into email, and it uses the title on the
   Subject line and the rest of the commit in the body.

   Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

   *   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of
       bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.

   *   Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This applies
       to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as path names
       in command line arguments, environment variables and config files
       (.git/config (see git-config(1)), gitignore(5), gitattributes(5)
       and gitmodules(5)).

       Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as
       sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding
       conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using non-ASCII
       path names will mostly work even on platforms and file systems that
       use legacy extended ASCII encodings. However, repositories created
       on such systems will not work properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g.
       Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa. Additionally, many Git-based
       tools simply assume path names to be UTF-8 and will fail to display
       other encodings correctly.

   *   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
       extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
       ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and
       CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).

   Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
   UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8
   on projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more
   convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it. However,
   there are a few things to keep in mind.

    1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log
       message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless
       you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to
       say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config file, like

                   commitencoding = ISO-8859-1

       Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
       i18n.commitencoding in its encoding header. This is to help other
       people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
       commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

    2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding
       header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into
       UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired
       output encoding with i18n.logoutputencoding in .git/config file,
       like this:

                   logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1

       If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
       i18n.commitencoding is used instead.

   Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
   when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
   because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.


   The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the
   GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration
   variable, the VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment
   variable (in that order). See git-var(1) for details.


   This command can run commit-msg, prepare-commit-msg, pre-commit, and
   post-commit hooks. See githooks(5) for more information.


       This file contains the commit message of a commit in progress. If
       git commit exits due to an error before creating a commit, any
       commit message that has been provided by the user (e.g., in an
       editor session) will be available in this file, but will be
       overwritten by the next invocation of git commit.


   git-add(1), git-rm(1), git-mv(1), git-merge(1), git-commit-tree(1)


   Part of the git(1) suite


Personal Opportunity - Free software gives you access to billions of dollars of software at no cost. Use this software for your business, personal use or to develop a profitable skill. Access to source code provides access to a level of capabilities/information that companies protect though copyrights. Open source is a core component of the Internet and it is available to you. Leverage the billions of dollars in resources and capabilities to build a career, establish a business or change the world. The potential is endless for those who understand the opportunity.

Business Opportunity - Goldman Sachs, IBM and countless large corporations are leveraging open source to reduce costs, develop products and increase their bottom lines. Learn what these companies know about open source and how open source can give you the advantage.

Free Software

Free Software provides computer programs and capabilities at no cost but more importantly, it provides the freedom to run, edit, contribute to, and share the software. The importance of free software is a matter of access, not price. Software at no cost is a benefit but ownership rights to the software and source code is far more significant.

Free Office Software - The Libre Office suite provides top desktop productivity tools for free. This includes, a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation engine, drawing and flowcharting, database and math applications. Libre Office is available for Linux or Windows.

Free Books

The Free Books Library is a collection of thousands of the most popular public domain books in an online readable format. The collection includes great classical literature and more recent works where the U.S. copyright has expired. These books are yours to read and use without restrictions.

Source Code - Want to change a program or know how it works? Open Source provides the source code for its programs so that anyone can use, modify or learn how to write those programs themselves. Visit the GNU source code repositories to download the source.


Study at Harvard, Stanford or MIT - Open edX provides free online courses from Harvard, MIT, Columbia, UC Berkeley and other top Universities. Hundreds of courses for almost all major subjects and course levels. Open edx also offers some paid courses and selected certifications.

Linux Manual Pages - A man or manual page is a form of software documentation found on Linux/Unix operating systems. Topics covered include computer programs (including library and system calls), formal standards and conventions, and even abstract concepts.