sfb - Stochastic Fair Blue


   tc qdisc ... blue rehash milliseconds db milliseconds limit packets max
   packets target packets increment  float  decrement  float  penalty_rate
   packets per second penalty_burst packets


   Stochastic Fair Blue is a classless qdisc to manage congestion based on
   packet loss and link utilization history while trying to  prevent  non-
   responsive flows (i.e. flows that do not react to congestion marking or
   dropped  packets)  from  impacting  performance  of  responsive  flows.
   Unlike  RED,  where  the marking probability has to be configured, BLUE
   tries to determine the ideal marking probability automatically.


   The BLUE algorithm maintains a probability which is  used  to  mark  or
   drop  packets  that  are  to  be  queued.  If  the queue overflows, the
   mark/drop probability is increased. If the  queue  becomes  empty,  the
   probability  is  decreased. The Stochastic Fair Blue (SFB) algorithm is
   designed to protect TCP flows against non-responsive flows.

   This SFB  implementation  maintains  8  levels  of  16  bins  each  for
   accounting.   Each flow is mapped into a bin of each level using a per-
   level hash value.

   Every bin maintains a marking  probability,  which  gets  increased  or
   decreased  based on bin occupancy. If the number of packets exceeds the
   size of that bin, the marking probability is increased. If  the  number
   drops to zero, it is decreased.

   The  marking  probability  is  based on the minimum value of all bins a
   flow is mapped into, thus, when a flow does not respond to  marking  or
   gradual packet drops, the marking probability quickly reaches one.

   In  this  case,  the  flow  is rate-limited to penalty_rate packets per


   Due to SFBs nature, it is possible for responsive flows to share all of
   its  bins with a non-responsive flow, causing the responsive flow to be
   misidentified as being non-responsive.

   The probability of a responsive flow to be misidentified  is  dependent
   on  the  number of non-responsive flows, M. It is (1 - (1 - (1 / 16.0))
   ** M) **8, so for example with 10  non-responsive  flows  approximately
   0.2% of responsive flows will be misidentified.

   To  mitigate  this,  SFB performs performs periodic re-hashing to avoid
   misclassification for prolonged periods of time.

   The default hashing method will use source and destination ip addresses
   and  port  numbers  if possible, and also supports tunneling protocols.
   Alternatively, an external classifier can be configured, too.


   rehash Time interval in milliseconds when queue perturbation occurs  to
          avoid erroneously detecting unrelated, responsive flows as being
          part of a non-responsive flow for  prolonged  periods  of  time.
          Defaults to 10 minutes.

   db     Double  buffering  warmup  wait time, in milliseconds.  To avoid
          destroying the probability history when rehashing is  performed,
          this  implementation  maintains  a  second set of levels/bins as
          described in section 4.4 of the SFB reference.  While one set is
          used  to manage the queue, a second set is warmed up: Whenever a
          flow is  then  determined  to  be  non-responsive,  the  marking
          probabilities  in the second set are updated. When the rehashing
          happens, these bins will be used to manage  the  queue  and  all
          non-responsive  flows  can  be  rate-limited  immediately.  This
          value determines how much time has to pass before  the  2nd  set
          will  start  to be warmed up.  Defaults to one minute, should be
          lower than rehash.

   limit  Hard limit on  the  real  (not  average)  total  queue  size  in
          packets.   Further packets are dropped. Defaults to the transmit
          queue length of the device the qdisc is attached to.

   max    Maximum length of a buckets queue, in  packets,  before  packets
          start  being dropped. Should be sightly larger than target , but
          should not be set to values exceeding 1.5 times that of target .
          Defaults to 25.

   target The  desired average bin length. If the bin queue length reaches
          this value, the marking probability is increased  by  increment.
          The default value depends on the max setting, with max set to 25
          target will default to 20.

          A value used to increase the marking probability when the  queue
          appears  to be over-used. Must be between 0 and 1.0. Defaults to

          Value used to decrease the marking probability when the queue is
          found  to  be  empty.  Must  be  between 0 and 1.0.  Defaults to

          The maximum number of packets belonging to flows  identified  as
          being  non-responsive that can be enqueued per second. Once this
          number has been reached, further packets of such  non-responsive
          flows  are  dropped.   Set this to a reasonable fraction of your
          uplink throughput; the default value of 10 packets  is  probably
          too small.

          The  number of packets a flow is permitted to exceed the penalty
          rate  before  packets  start  being  dropped.   Defaults  to  20


   This  qdisc  exposes  additional  statistics  via 'tc -s qdisc' output.
   These are:

          The number of packets dropped before a per-flow queue was full.

          The number of packets dropped because of rate-limiting.  If this
          value  is  high,  there  are  many non-reactive flows being sent
          through sfb. In such cases, it might  be  better  to  embed  sfb
          within  a  classful  qdisc  to better control such flows using a
          different, shaping qdisc.

          The number of packets dropped because a per-flow queue was full.
          High bucketdrop may point to a high number of aggressive, short-
          lived flows.

          The number of packets dropped due to reaching limit. This should
          normally be 0.

   marked The number of packets marked with ECN.

          The length of the current longest per-flow (virtual) queue.

          The  maximum  per-flow drop probability. 1 means that some flows
          have been detected as non-reactive.


   SFB automatically  enables  use  of  Explicit  Congestion  Notification
   (ECN).   Also,  this  SFB implementation does not queue packets itself.
   Rather, packets are enqueued to the inner qdisc  (defaults  to  pfifo).
   Because  sfb  maintains  virtual queue states, the inner qdisc must not
   drop a packet previously queued.  Furthermore, if a buckets queue has a
   very high marking rate, this implementation will start dropping packets
   instead of marking them, as such  a  situation  points  to  either  bad
   congestion, or an unresponsive flow.


   To attach to interface $DEV, using default options:

   # tc qdisc add dev $DEV handle 1: root sfb

   Only  use  destination  ip  addresses  for  assigning  packets to bins,
   perturbing hash results every 10 minutes:

   # tc filter add dev $DEV parent 1: handle 1 flow hash keys dst  perturb


   tc(8), tc-red(8), tc-sfq(8)


   o      W.  Feng,  D.  Kandlur,  D.  Saha, K. Shin, BLUE: A New Class of
          Active Queue Management Algorithms, U.  Michigan  CSE-TR-387-99,
          April 1999.


   This  SFB implementation was contributed by Juliusz Chroboczek and Eric


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