sane-epson - SANE backend for EPSON scanners


   The  sane-epson  library  implements  a  SANE (Scanner Access Now Easy)
   backend that provides access to Epson flatbed scanners.  Some functions
   of  this  backend  should  be  considered  beta-quality  software! Most
   functions have  been  stable  for  a  long  time,  but  of  course  new
   development can not and often times will not function properly from the
   very first day. Please report any strange behavior to the maintainer of
   the backend.

   At present, the following scanners are known to work with this backend:

          Model:                       Connection Type
          ---------------------------  -------------------
          GT-5000                      SCSI, parallel
          GT-6000                      parallel
          GT-6500                      SCSI (use only the line "scsi" in epson.conf)
          ActionScanner II             SCSI, parallel
          GT-7000                      SCSI
          Perfection 636               SCSI
          Perfection 636U              USB
          Perfection 610               USB
          Perfection 640               USB
          Perfection 1200S             SCSI
          Perfection 1200U             USB
          Perfection 1240              USB, SCSI
          Perfection 1640              USB, SCSI
          Perfection 1650              USB
          Perfection 1660              USB
          Perfection 2400              USB
          Perfection 2450              USB, IEEE-1394
          Expression 636 / GT-9500     SCSI
          Expression 1600              USB, SCSI, IEEE-1394
          Expression 1680              USB, SCSI, IEEE-1394
          CX-3200                      USB
          CX-5200                      USB
          and many more. The official list is on the Sane web site.

   For other scanners the software  may or may not work.  Please send mail
   to the backend author ( to report success with scanners not
   on the list or problems with scanners that are listed.


   The options the backend supports can either be selected through command
   line options to programs like scanimage  or  through  GUI  elements  in
   programs like xscanimage or xsane.

   Valid command line options and their syntax can be listed by using
          scanimage --help -d epson
   Not all devices support all options.

   Scan Mode
          The  --mode  switch  selects  the basic mode of operation of the
          scanner. Valid choices are Binary, Gray and Color.   The  Binary
          mode  is  black  and white only, Gray will produce 256 levels of
          gray or more depending on the scanner and  Color  means  24  bit
          color mode or more depending on the scanner.  Some scanners will
          internally use 36 bit color, their  external  interface  however
          may only support 24 bits.

          The  --depth  option selects the bit depth the scanner is using.
          This option is only available for  scanners  that  support  more
          than  one  bit  depth.  Older  scanners will always transfer the
          image in 8bit mode. Newer scanners  allow  to  select  either  8
          bits,  12  or  14  bits per color channel. For a color scan this
          means an effective color depth of 36 or 42 bits over  all  three
          channels. The valid choices depend on the scanner model.

          The  --halftoning switch selects the mode that is used in Binary
          mode. Valid  options  are  "None",  "Halftone  A  (Hard  Tone)",
          "Halftone  B  (Soft Tone)", "Halftone C (Net Screen)", "Dither A
          (4x4 Bayer)", "Dither  B  (4x4  Spiral)",  "Dither  C  (4x4  Net
          Screen)",   "Dither   D   (8x4   Net  Screen)",  "Text  Enhanced
          Technology", "Download pattern A", and "Download pattern B".

          The --dropout switch selects the so called dropout color.  Valid
          options  are None, Red, Green and Blue. The default is None. The
          dropout color is used for monochrome scanning  and  selects  the
          color  that  is  not  scanned.  This can be used to e.g. scan an
          original with a colored background.

          The --brightness switch controls the  brightness  of  the  scan.
          Valid options are integer values from -3 to 3. The default is 0.
          The larger the brightness value, the brighter the image gets. If
          a  user  defined table for the gamma correction is selected, the
          brightness parameter is not available.

          The --sharpness switch sets the sharpness  of  the  image  data.
          Valid  options  are integer values from -2 to 2, with -2 meaning
          "Defocus",  -1  "Defocus  slightly",  0  "Normal",  1   "Sharpen
          slightly" and 2 "Sharpen".

          The  --gamma-correction  switch  controls the scanner's internal
          gamma correction. Valid options are "Default",  "User  defined",
          "High   density  printing"  "Low  density  printing"  and  "High
          contrast printing".

          The --color-correction switch controls  the  scanner's  internal
          color  correction  function.  Valid options are "No Correction",
          "Impact-dot printers", "Thermal  printers",  "Ink-jet  printers"
          and "CRT monitors". The default is "CRT monitors".

          The  --resolution switch selects the resolution for a scan. Some
          EPSON scanners will scan in any resolution  between  the  lowest
          and highest possible value. The list reported by the scanner can
          be  displayed  using  the  "--help  -d  epson"   parameters   to

          The  --mirror  option  controls the way the image is scanned. By
          reading the image data from right to left the image is mirrored.
          Valid options are "yes" and "no". The default is "no".

          The  --speed  option  can  improve  the scan speed in monochrome
          mode. Valid options are "yes" or "no",  the  "yes"  option  will
          speed up the scan if this option is supported.

          The --auto-area-segmentation switch activates the automatic area
          segmentation for monochrome  scans.  The  scanner  will  try  to
          determine  which  areas  are  text and which contain images. The
          image areas will be halftoned, and the text  will  be  improved.
          Valid options are "yes" and "no". The default is "yes".

          The  --gamma-table  parameter  can  be  used  to download a user
          defined gamma table. The option takes 256 values from the  range
          0-255. In color mode this option equally affects the red, green,
          and blue channel.

          The --red-gamma-table parameter can be used to download  a  user
          defined  gamma  table for the red channel. The valid options are
          the same as for --gamma-table.

          The --green-gamma-table parameter can be used to download a user
          defined gamma table for the green channel. The valid options are
          the same as for --gamma-table.

          The --blue-gamma-table parameter can be used to download a  user
          defined  gamma table for the blue channel. The valid options are
          the same as for --gamma-table.

          The color correction coefficients --cct-1  --cct-2  --cct-3  ...
          --cct-9  will install color correction coefficients for the user
          defined color correction. Values are specified  as  integers  in
          the range -127..127.

          The  --preview  option  requests  a  preview  scan. The frontend
          software automatically selects a low resolution.  Valid  options
          are "yes" and "no". The default is "no".

          The --preview-speed options will increase the scan speed if this
          is supported by the scanner. Valid options are "yes"  and  "no",
          the default is "no".

          The  geometry options -l -t -x -y control the scan area: -l sets
          the top left x coordinate, -t the  top  left  y  coordinate,  -x
          selects  the  width  and  -y  the  height  of the scan area. All
          parameters are specified in millimeters.

          The --quick-format option lets the user select a scan area  with
          predefined  sizes. Valid parameters are "CD", "A5 portrait", "A5
          landscape", "Letter", "A4" and  "max".  The  default  is  "max",
          which selects the largest possible area.

          The  --source  option  selects  the  scan  source. Valid options
          depend on the installed options. The default is "Flatbed".

          The --auto-eject option will eject a page  after  scanning  from
          the document feeder.

          The  --film-type option will select the film type for scans with
          the transparency unit. This option is only activated if the  TPU
          is  selected  as  scan source. Valid options are "Negative Film"
          and "Positive Film".

          The --focus-position option selects the focus position  for  all
          scans. Valid options are "Focus 2.5mm above glass" and "Focus on
          glass". The  focus  on  the  2.5mm  point  above  the  glass  is
          necessary  for  scans  with  the  transparency unit, so that the
          scanner can focus on the film if one  of  the  film  holders  is
          used.  This option is only functional for selected scanners, all
          other scanners will ignore this option.


   The configuration file /etc/sane.d/epson.conf specifies  the  device(s)
   that the backend will use. Possible connection types are:

   SCSI   This  is  the  default,  and  if  nothing  else is specified the
          backend software will open a given path  as  SCSI  device.  More
          information  about valid syntax for SCSI devices can be found in
          Usually SCSI scanners are configured with a line "scsi EPSON" in
          this  file.  In  some  cases it may be necessary to only use the
          string "scsi" (e.g. for the GT-6500).

   PIO - Parallel Interface
          The parallel interface can be configured in two ways: An integer
          value starting at the beginning of a line will be interpreted as
          the IO address of the parallel port. To make it clearer  that  a
          configured IO address is a parallel port the port address can be
          preceded by the string "PIO". The PIO connection does not use  a
          special device file in the /dev directory. The IO address can be
          specified in hex mode (prefixed with "0x").

   USB    A device file that is preceded by the string "USB" is treated as
          a  scanner  connected  via the Universal Serial Bus. The correct
          special device file has to be created prior  to  using  it  with
          Sane.  See  the USB documentation for more information about how
          to set up the USB subsystem and the required device files.


          The static library implementing this backend.

          The shared library implementing this backend (present on systems
          that support dynamic loading).


          If  the  library  was  compiled with debug support enabled, this
          environment variable controls the debug level for this  backend.
          E.g.,  a  value  of 128 requests all debug output to be printed.
          Smaller levels reduce verbosity.

          If the library was compiled with  debug  support  enabled,  this
          environment  variable  controls the SCSI related debug level for
          this backend.  Only a value of 2 is supported.

          This allows one to override the function or command  level  that
          the  backend  uses to communicate with the scanner. The function
          level a scanner supports is determined during the initialization
          of  the  device.  If the backend does not recognize the function
          level reported by the scanner it will default to function  level
          B3.  Valid  function  levels are A1, A2, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6,
          B7, B8, D1 and F5. Use this feature only if you  know  what  you
          are doing!


   sane-scsi(5), scanimage(1), xscanimage(1), xsane(1)


   None :-) At least none are currently known.


   The  backend  may  be  used with Epson scanners that are not yet listed
   under the list of supported devices. A scanner that is  not  recognized
   may  default  to  the  function  level  B3,  which  means  that not all
   functions that the scanner may be capable of are accessible.

   If the scanner is not even recognized  as  an  Epson  scanner  this  is
   probably  because the device name reported by the scanner is not in the
   correct format. Please send this information to the backend  maintainer
   (email  address  is  in  the  AUTHOR section of this man page or in the
   AUTHORS file of the SANE distribution).

   The Perfection 600, Perfection 650, Perfection 660, Perfection 1250 and
   Perfection 1260 are not supported by this backend.


   The  package is actively maintained by Karl Heinz Kremer (
   The software is based on work by Christian Bucher and Kazuhiro Sasayama

                              11 Jul 2008                    sane-epson(5)


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