ispell,  buildhash,  munchlist,  findaffix, tryaffix, icombine, ijoin -
   Interactive spelling checking


   ispell [common-flags] [-M|-N] [-Lcontext] [-V] files
   ispell [common-flags] -l
   ispell [common-flags] [-f file] [-s] [-a|-A]
   ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -c
   ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -e[e]
   ispell [-d file] -D
   ispell -v[v]

          [-t] [-n] [-H] [-o] [-b] [-x] [-B] [-C] [-P] [-m] [-S] [-d file]
          [-p file] [-w chars] [-W n] [-T type] [-kname list] [-F program]

   Helper programs:

   buildhash [-s] dict-file affix-file hash-file
   buildhash -s count affix-file

   munchlist [-l aff-file] [-c conv-file] [-T suffix]
             [-s hash-file] [-D] [-v] [-w chars] [files]

   findaffix [-p|-s] [-f] [-c] [-m min] [-M max] [-e elim]
             [-t tabchar] [-l low] [files]

   tryaffix [-p|-s] [-c] expanded-file affix [+addition]

   icombine [-T type] [-w chars] [aff-file]

   ijoin [-s|-u] join-options file1 file2


   Ispell  is fashioned after the spell program from ITS (called ispell on
   Twenex systems.)  The most common usage is "ispell filename".  In  this
   case,  ispell  will  display  each  word  which  does not appear in the
   dictionary at the top of the screen and allow you  to  change  it.   If
   there are "near misses" in the dictionary (words which differ by only a
   single letter, a missing or extra letter, a pair of transposed letters,
   or  a  missing  space  or  hyphen),  then  they  are  also displayed on
   following lines.  As well as "near misses", ispell  may  display  other
   guesses  at  ways  to  make the word from a known root, with each guess
   preceded by question marks.  Finally, the line containing the word  and
   the  previous  line  are  printed at the bottom of the screen.  If your
   terminal can display in reverse video, the word itself is  highlighted.
   You  have  the option of replacing the word completely, or choosing one
   of the suggested words.  Commands  are  single  characters  as  follows
   (case is ignored):

          R      Replace the misspelled word completely.

          Space  Accept the word this time only.

          A      Accept the word for the rest of this ispell session.

          I      Accept  the  word,  capitalized as it is in the file, and
                 update private dictionary.

          U      Accept the word, and add an uncapitalized (actually,  all
                 lower-case) version to the private dictionary.

          0-n    Replace with one of the suggested words.

          L      Look  up  words  in  system dictionary (controlled by the
                 WORDS compilation option).

          X      Write the rest of this file, ignoring  misspellings,  and
                 start next file.

          Q      Exit immediately and leave the file unchanged.

          !      Shell escape.

          ^L     Redraw screen.

          ^Z     Suspend ispell.

          ?      Give help screen.

   If  the  -M  switch is specified, a one-line mini-menu at the bottom of
   the screen will summarize these options.  Conversely, the -N switch may
   be  used  to  suppress  the  mini-menu.   (The minimenu is displayed by
   default if ispell was compiled with the MINIMENU option, but these  two
   switches will always override the default).

   If  the -L flag is given, the specified number is used as the number of
   lines of context to be shown at the bottom of the screen  (The  default
   is  to  calculate  the amount of context as a certain percentage of the
   screen size).  The amount of context is  subject  to  a  system-imposed

   If  the  -V  flag  is  given, characters that are not in the 7-bit ANSI
   printable character set will always be displayed in the style  of  "cat
   -v",  even if ispell thinks that these characters are legal ISO Latin-1
   on your system.  This is useful  when  working  with  older  terminals.
   Without  this  switch,  ispell will display 8-bit characters "as is" if
   they have been defined as string characters for the chosen file type.

   "Normal" mode, as well as the -l, -a, and -A  options  and  interactive
   mode  (see  below)  also  accepts  the  following "common" flags on the
   command line:

          -t     The input file is in TeX or LaTeX format.

          -n     The input file is in nroff/troff format.

          -H     The input file is  in  SGML/HTML  format.   (This  should
                 really  be  -s,  but for historical reasons that flag was
                 already taken.)

          -o     The input file should be treated as ordinary text.  (This
                 could be used to override DEFTEXFLAG.)

          -g     The  input file is in Debian control file format.  Ispell
                 will ignore everything outside the Description(s).

          -b     Create a backup file by appending ".bak" to the  name  of
                 the input file.

          -x     Delete the backup file after spell-checking is finished.

          -B     Report run-together words with missing blanks as spelling

          -C     Consider run-together words as legal compounds.

          -P     Don't generate extra root/affix combinations.

          -m     Make possible root/affix combinations that aren't in  the

          -S     Sort the list of guesses by probable correctness.

          -d file
                 Specify  an  alternate dictionary file.  For example, use
                 -d british to  choose  /usr/lib/ispell/british.{aff|hash}
                 instead of your default ispell dictionary.

          -p file
                 Specify an alternate personal dictionary.

          -w chars
                 Specify additional characters that can be part of a word.

          -W n   Specify length of words that are always legal.

          -T type
                 Assume a given formatter type for all files.

   The -H, -n, -t, and -o options select whether ispell runs in HTML (-H),
   nroff/troff (-n), TeX/LaTeX (-t), or ordinary  text  (-o)  input  mode.
   mode.   (The  default mode is controlled by the DEFTEXFLAG installation
   option, but is  normally  nroff/troff  mode  for  historical  reasons.)
   Unless overridden by one of the mode-selection switches, TeX/LaTeX mode
   is automatically selected if an input file has  the  extension  ".tex",
   and  HTML  mode  is  automatically  selected  if  an input file has the
   extension ".html" or ".htm".

   In HTML mode, HTML tags delimited by <> signs are skipped, except  that
   the  "ALT=" construct is recognized if it appears with no spaces around
   the equals sign, and the text inside is spell-checked.

   In TeX/LaTeX mode, whenever a backslash ("\")  is  found,  ispell  will
   skip  to  the next whitespace or TeX/LaTeX delimiter.  Certain commands
   contain arguments which should not  be  checked,  such  as  labels  and
   reference  keys  as  are found in the \cite command, since they contain
   arbitrary, non-word arguments.  Spell checking is also suppressed  when
   in math mode.  Thus, for example, given

          \chapter {This is a Ckapter} \cite{SCH86}

   ispell  will  find  "Ckapter"  but  not  "SCH".  The -t option does not
   recognize the TeX comment character "%", so comments  are  also  spell-
   checked.    It   also  assumes  correct  LaTeX  syntax.   Arguments  to
   infrequently used commands and some optional  arguments  are  sometimes
   checked  unnecessarily.  The bibliography will not be checked if ispell
   was compiled with IGNOREBIB defined.  Otherwise, the bibliography  will
   be checked but the reference key will not.

   References  for  the  tib  (if  available on your system), bibliography
   system, that is, text between a ``[.'' or ``<.'' and ``.]''  or  ``.>''
   will always be ignored in TeX/LaTeX mode.

   The  -b  and  -x  options control whether ispell leaves a backup (.bak)
   file for each input file.  The .bak  file  contains  the  pre-corrected
   text.  If there are file opening / writing errors, the .bak file may be
   left for recovery purposes even with the -x option.   The  default  for
   this option is controlled by the DEFNOBACKUPFLAG installation option.

   The  -B  and  -C options control how ispell handles run-together words,
   such as "notthe" for "not the".  If -B is specified, such words will be
   considered  as errors, and ispell will list variations with an inserted
   blank or hyphen as possible replacements.  If  -C  is  specified,  run-
   together  words  will  be  considered to be legal compounds, so long as
   both components are in the dictionary, and each component is  at  least
   as  long  as  a  language-dependent minimum (3 characters, by default).
   This is useful for languages such as German and Norwegian,  where  many
   compound  words  are  formed  by  concatenation.   (Note that compounds
   formed from three or more root words will still be considered  errors).
   The  default  for this option is language-dependent; in a multi-lingual
   installation the default may vary depending  on  which  dictionary  you
   choose.  Warning: the -C option can cause ispell to recognize non-words
   and misspellings.  Use it with caution!

   The -P and -m  options  control  when  ispell  automatically  generates
   suggested   root/affix  combinations  for  possible  addition  to  your
   personal dictionary.  (These are the entries in the "guess" list  which
   are  preceded by question marks.)  If -P is specified, such guesses are
   displayed only if ispell cannot generate any possibilities  that  match
   the  current  dictionary.   If -m is specified, such guesses are always
   displayed.  This can be useful if the dictionary  has  a  limited  word
   list, or a word list with few suffixes.  However, you should be careful
   when using this option, as it can generate guesses that produce illegal
   words.   The  default  for  this option is controlled by the dictionary
   file used.

   The -S option suppresses ispell's normal behavior of sorting  the  list
   of  possible  replacement words.  Some people may prefer this, since it
   somewhat enhances the probability that the correct word  will  be  low-

   The  -d  option is used to specify an alternate hashed dictionary file,
   other than the default.  If the filename does not contain  a  "/",  the
   library directory for the default dictionary file is prefixed; thus, to
   use a dictionary in the local directory "-d ./xxx.hash" must  be  used.
   This  is  useful to allow dictionaries for alternate languages.  Unlike
   previous versions of ispell, a  dictionary  of  /dev/null  is  illegal,
   because  the  dictionary  contains  the  affix  table.   If you need an
   effectively empty dictionary, create a one-entry list with an  unlikely
   string (e.g., "qqqqq").

   The -p option is used to specify an alternate personal dictionary file.
   If the file name does not begin with "/", $HOME is prefixed.  Also, the
   shell  variable  WORDLIST  may  be  set,  which  renames  the  personal
   dictionary in the same manner.  The command line overrides any WORDLIST
   setting.   If  neither  the  -p  switch  nor  the  WORDLIST environment
   variable is given, ispell will search for a personal dictionary in both
   the  current  directory  and  $HOME,  creating  one in $HOME if none is
   found.  The preferred name is constructed by  appending  ".ispell_"  to
   the  base  name  of the hash file.  For example, if you use the English
   dictionary, your personal dictionary would be named  ".ispell_english".
   However,  if  the  file  ".ispell_words" exists, it will be used as the
   personal dictionary regardless of the language hash file chosen.   This
   feature is included primarily for backwards compatibility.

   If  the  -p  option  is  not  specified,  ispell will look for personal
   dictionaries in both the current directory and the home directory.   If
   dictionaries  exist  in both places, they will be merged.  If any words
   are added to the personal dictionary,  they  will  be  written  to  the
   current  directory  if  a  dictionary  already  existed  in that place;
   otherwise they will be written to the dictionary in the home directory.

   The -w option may be used to specify characters other than  alphabetics
   which may also appear in words.  For instance, -w "&" will allow "AT&T"
   to be picked up.  Underscores are useful in many  technical  documents.
   There  is  an  admittedly  crude  provision  in  this  option for 8-bit
   international characters.  Non-printing characters may be specified  in
   the  usual way by inserting a backslash followed by the octal character
   code; e.g., "\014" for a form feed.  Alternatively, if "n"  appears  in
   the  character  string,  the  (up  to) three characters following are a
   DECIMAL code 0 - 255, for the character.  For example, to include bells
   and  form  feeds  in  your  words (an admittedly silly thing to do, but
   aren't most pedagogical examples):


   Numeric digits other than the three following "n"  are  simply  numeric
   characters.   Use of "n" does not conflict with anything because actual
   alphabetics have no meaning - alphabetics are already accepted.  Ispell
   will  typically be used with input from a file, meaning that preserving
   parity for possible 8 bit characters from the input text is OK.  If you
   specify  the  -l option, and actually type text from the terminal, this
   may create problems if your stty settings preserve parity.

   It is not possible to use -w with certain characters.   In  particular,
   the  flag-marker character for the language (defined in the affix file,
   but usually "/") can never be made into a word character.

   The -W option may be used to change the length  of  words  that  ispell
   always  accepts as legal.  Normally, ispell will accept all 1-character
   words as legal, which is equivalent to specifying "-W 1."  (The default
   for  this  switch  is  actually  controlled by the MINWORD installation
   option, so it may vary at your installation.)  If you want all words to
   be checked against the dictionary, regardless of length, you might want
   to specify "-W 0."  On the other hand, if your document specifies a lot
   of  three-letter acronyms, you would specify "-W 3" to accept all words
   of three letters or less.  Regardless of the setting  of  this  option,
   ispell will only generate words that are in the dictionary as suggested
   replacements for words; this prevents the list from becoming too  long.
   Obviously,  this option can be very dangerous, since short misspellings
   may be missed.  If you use this option a lot, you should probably  make
   a  last  pass  without  it before you publish your document, to protect
   yourself against errors.

   The -T option is used to specify a default formatter type  for  use  in
   generating  string  characters.  This switch overrides the default type
   determined from the file name.  The type argument may be either one  of
   the  unique names defined in the language affix file (e.g., nroff) or a
   file suffix including the dot (e.g., .tex).  If no  -T  option  appears
   and  no  type  can be determined from the file name, the default string
   character type declared in the language affix file will be used.

   The -k option is used to enhance the behavior of certain  deformatters.
   The  name  parameter  gives  the name of a deformatter keyword set (see
   below), and the list parameter gives a list of  one  or  more  keywords
   that are to be treated specially.  If list begins with a plus (+) sign,
   it is added  to  the  existing  keywords;  otherwise  it  replaces  the
   existing keyword list.  For example, -ktexskip1 +bibliographystyle adds
   "bibliographystyle"  to  the  TeX  skip-1  list,   while   -khtmlignore
   pre,strong  replaces the HTML ignore list with "pre" and "strong".  The
   lists available are:

          TeX/LaTeX commands that take a single argument that  should  not
          be  spell-checked,  such as "bibliographystyle".  The default is
          "end", "vspace", "hspace",  "cite",  "ref",  "parbox",  "label",
          "input",  "nocite",  "include",  "includeonly", "documentstyle",
          "documentclass",  "usepackage",  "selectlanguage",  "pagestyle",
          "pagenumbering",  "hyphenation",  "pageref",  and  "psfig", plus
          "bibliography" in some installations.  These keywords are  case-

          TeX/LaTeX  commands  that  take two arguments that should not be
          spell-checked, such as  "setlength".   The  default  is  "rule",
          "setcounter",  "addtocounter",  "setlength",  "addtolength", and
          "settowidth".  These keywords are case-sensitive.

          HTML tags that delimit text that  should  not  be  spell-checked
          until  the  matching end tag is reached.  The default is "code",
          "samp", "kbd", "pre", "listing", and "address".  These  keywords
          are  case-insensitive.  (Note that the content inside HTML tags,
          such as HREF=, is not normally checked.)

          Subfields that should be spell-checked even  inside  HTML  tags.
          The  default is "alt", so that the ALT= portion of IMG tags will
          be spell-checked.  These keywords are case-insensitive.

   All of the above keyword lists can  also  be  modified  by  environment
   variables whose names are the same as above, except in uppercase, e.g.,
   TEXSKIP1.  The  -k  switch  overrides  (or  adds  to)  the  environment
   variables,  and the environment variables override or add to the built-
   in defaults.

   The -F switch specifies an external deformatter program.  This  program
   should  read  data  from  its  standard input and write to its standard
   output.  The program must produce exactly one character of  output  for
   each  character  of  input,  or  ispell  will  lose synchronization and
   corrupt the output file.   Whitespace  characters  (especially  blanks,
   tabs,  and newlines) and characters that should be spell-checked should
   be passed through unchanged.  Characters  that  should  not  be  spell-
   checked  should  be converted into blanks or other non-word characters.
   For example, an HTML deformatter might turn all HTML tags into  blanks,
   and also blank out all text delimited by tags such as "code" or "kbd".

   The  -F  switch  is the preferred way to deformat files for ispell, and
   eventually will become the only way.

   If ispell is invoked without any filenames or mode switches, it  enters
   an  interactive  mode  designed  to  let the user check the spelling of
   individual words.  The program repeatedly prompts  on  standard  output
   with  "word:" and responds with either "ok" (possibly with commentary),
   "not found", or "how about" followed by a list of suggestions.

   The -l or "list" option  to  ispell  is  used  to  produce  a  list  of
   misspelled words from the standard input.

   The  -a  option  is  intended  to be used from other programs through a
   pipe.  In this mode, ispell prints a  one-line  version  identification
   message,  and then begins reading lines of input.  For each input line,
   a single line is written to the standard output for each  word  checked
   for  spelling  on  the  line.   If  the  word  was  found  in  the main
   dictionary, or your personal dictionary, then the line contains only  a
   '*'.   If  the  word  was  found  through  affix removal, then the line
   contains a '+', a space, and the root word.   If  the  word  was  found
   through  compound  formation (concatenation of two words, controlled by
   the -C option), then the line contains only a '-'.

   If the word is not in the dictionary, but there are near  misses,  then
   the  line  contains  an '&', a space, the misspelled word, a space, the
   number of near misses, the number of characters between  the  beginning
   of  the line and the beginning of the misspelled word, a colon, another
   space, and a list of the near misses separated by  commas  and  spaces.
   Following  the  near  misses  (and identified only by the count of near
   misses), if the word could be formed by adding (illegal) affixes  to  a
   known  root,  is  a  list  of suggested derivations, again separated by
   commas and spaces.  If there are no near misses at all, the line format
   is  the same, except that the '&' is replaced by '?' (and the near-miss
   count is always zero).  The suggested derivations  following  the  near
   misses are in the form:

          [prefix+] root [-prefix] [-suffix] [+suffix]

   (e.g., "re+fry-y+ies" to get "refries") where each optional pfx and sfx
   is a string.  Also, each near miss or guess is capitalized the same  as
   the  input  word  unless  such capitalization is illegal; in the latter
   case  each  near  miss  is  capitalized  correctly  according  to   the

   Finally,  if  the word does not appear in the dictionary, and there are
   no near misses, then the line contains a '#', a space,  the  misspelled
   word, a space, and the character offset from the beginning of the line.
   Each sentence of text input is  terminated  with  an  additional  blank
   line, indicating that ispell has completed processing the input line.

   These output lines can be summarized as follows:

          OK:    *

          Root:  + <root>


          Miss:  &  <original>  <count>  <offset>:  <miss>,  <miss>,  ...,
                 <guess>, ...

          Guess: ? <original> 0 <offset>: <guess>, <guess>, ...

          None:  # <original> <offset>

   For example, a dummy dictionary containing the  words  "fray",  "Frey",
   "fry",  and  "refried"  might  produce  the  following  response to the
   command "echo 'frqy refries | ispell -a -m -d ./test.hash":
          (#) International Ispell Version 3.0.05 (beta), 08/10/91
          & frqy 3 0: fray, Frey, fry
          & refries 1 5: refried, re+fry-y+ies

   This mode is also suitable for interactive use when you want to  figure
   out the spelling of a single word.

   The -A option works just like -a, except that if a line begins with the
   string "&Include_File&", the rest of the line is taken as the name of a
   file  to  read  for  further words.  Input returns to the original file
   when the include file is exhausted.  Inclusion may be nested up to five
   deep.   The  key  string  may  be changed with the environment variable
   INCLUDE_STRING (the ampersands, if any, must be included).

   When in the -a mode, ispell will also  accept  lines  of  single  words
   prefixed  with any of '*', '&', '@', '+', '-', '~', '#', '!', '%', '`',
   or '^'.  A line starting with '*' tells ispell to insert the word  into
   the user's dictionary (similar to the I command).  A line starting with
   '&' tells ispell to insert an all-lowercase version of  the  word  into
   the user's dictionary (similar to the U command).  A line starting with
   '@' causes ispell to accept this word in the future (similar to  the  A
   command).   A  line  starting  with '+', followed immediately by tex or
   nroff will cause ispell to parse future input according the  syntax  of
   that formatter.  A line consisting solely of a '+' will place ispell in
   TeX/LaTeX mode (similar to the -t option) and  '-'  returns  ispell  to
   nroff/troff  mode  (but  these  commands  are  obsolete).  However, the
   string character type is not changed; the '~' command must be  used  to
   do  this.   A  line  starting  with  '~'  causes ispell to set internal
   parameters (in particular, the default string character type) based  on
   the  filename  given  in  the  rest  of  the  line.   (A file suffix is
   sufficient, but the period must be included.  Instead of a file name or
   suffix,  a  unique  name,  as listed in the language affix file, may be
   specified.)  However, the formatter parsing is not  changed;   the  '+'
   command must be used to change the formatter.  A line prefixed with '#'
   will cause the personal dictionary to be saved.  A line  prefixed  with
   '!'  will  turn on terse mode (see below), and a line prefixed with '%'
   will return ispell to normal (non-terse) mode.  A  line  prefixed  with
   '`'  will  turn  on  verbose-correction mode (see below); this mode can
   only be disabled by turning on terse mode with '%'.

   Any input following the prefix characters '+', '-', '#', '!',  '%',  or
   '`'  is  ignored, as is any input following the filename on a '~' line.
   To allow spell-checking of lines beginning  with  these  characters,  a
   line  starting  with '^' has that character removed before it is passed
   to the  spell-checking  code.   It  is  recommended  that  programmatic
   interfaces prefix every data line with an uparrow to protect themselves
   against future changes in ispell.

   To summarize these:

          *      Add to personal dictionary

          @      Accept word, but leave out of dictionary

          #      Save current personal dictionary

          ~      Set parameters based on filename

          +      Enter TeX mode

          -      Exit TeX mode

          !      Enter terse mode

          %      Exit terse mode

          `      Enter verbose-correction mode

          ^      Spell-check rest of line

   In terse mode, ispell will not print lines beginning with '*', '+',  or
   '-',  all of which indicate correct words.  This significantly improves
   running speed when the driving program is going to ignore correct words

   In   verbose-correction   mode,   ispell  includes  the  original  word
   immediately after the indicator character  in  output  lines  beginning
   with '*', '+', and '-', which simplifies interaction for some programs.

   The  -s  option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or -A options,
   and only on BSD-derived systems.  If specified, ispell will stop itself
   with  a SIGTSTP signal after each line of input.  It will not read more
   input until it receives a SIGCONT  signal.   This  may  be  useful  for
   handshaking with certain text editors.

   The  -f  option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or -A options.
   If -f is specified, ispell will write its results to  the  given  file,
   rather than to standard output.

   The -v option causes ispell to print its current version identification
   on the standard output and exit.  If the switch is doubled, ispell will
   also print the options that it was compiled with.

   The  -c,  -e[1-5], and -D options of ispell, are primarily intended for
   use by the munchlist shell script.  The -c  switch  causes  a  list  of
   words  to  be  read  from the standard input.  For each word, a list of
   possible root words and affixes will be written to the standard output.
   Some  of  the  root words will be illegal and must be filtered from the
   output by other means; the munchlist script does this.  As an  example,
   the command:

          echo BOTHER | ispell -c



   The -e switch is the reverse of -c; it expands affix flags to produce a
   list of words.  For example, the command:

          echo BOTH/R | ispell -e


          BOTH BOTHER

   An optional expansion level can also be specified.  A level of 1  (-e1)
   is  the  same as -e alone.  A level of 2 causes the original root/affix
   combination to be prepended to the line:


   A level of 3 causes multiple lines to be output, one for each generated
   word,  with the original root/affix combination followed by the word it

          BOTH/R BOTH
          BOTH/R BOTHER

   A level of 4 causes a floating-point number to be appended to  each  of
   the  level-3 lines, giving the ratio between the length of the root and
   the total length of all generated words including the root:

          BOTH/R BOTH 2.500000
          BOTH/R BOTHER 2.500000

   A level of 5 causes multiple lines to be output, one for each generated
   word.   If the generated word did not use any affixes, the line is just
   that word.  If one or more affixes were used, the original root and the
   affixes  actually  used  are  printed,  joined by a plus sign; then the
   generated word is printed:

          BOTH+R BOTHER

   Finally, the -D flag causes the affix tables from the  dictionary  file
   to be dumped to standard output.

   Ispell  is  aware  of  the  correct  capitalizations  of  words  in the
   dictionary and in your personal dictionary.   As  well  as  recognizing
   words  that  must  be capitalized (e.g., George) and words that must be
   all-capitals (e.g., NASA), it can  also  handle  words  with  "unusual"
   capitalization  (e.g.,  "ITCorp"  or  "TeX").  If a word is capitalized
   incorrectly, the list of  possibilities  will  include  all  acceptable
   capitalizations.   (More than one capitalization may be acceptable; for
   example, my dictionary lists both "ITCorp" and "ITcorp".)

   Normally, this feature will not cause you surprises, but there  is  one
   circumstance  you need to be aware of.  If you use "I" to add a word to
   your dictionary that is at the beginning of a sentence (e.g., the first
   word  of  this  paragraph if "normally" were not in the dictionary), it
   will be marked as "capitalization required".   A  subsequent  usage  of
   this word without capitalization (e.g., the quoted word in the previous
   sentence) will be considered a  misspelling  by  ispell,  and  it  will
   suggest  the  capitalized  version.   You  must then compare the actual
   spellings by eye, and then type "I" to add the uncapitalized variant to
   your  personal  dictionary.  You can avoid this problem by using "U" to
   add the original word, rather than "I".

   The rules for capitalization are as follows:

   (1)    Any word may appear in all capitals, as in headings.

   (2)    Any word that is in the dictionary  in  all-lowercase  form  may
          appear  either  in lowercase or capitalized (as at the beginning
          of a sentence).

   (3)    Any word that has "funny" capitalization (i.e., it contains both
          cases  and  there  is  an uppercase character besides the first)
          must appear exactly as in the dictionary, except as permitted by
          rule  (1).   If the word is acceptable in all-lowercase, it must
          appear thus in a dictionary entry.

   The buildhash program builds hashed dictionary files for later  use  by
   ispell.   The  raw  word list (with affix flags) is given in dict-file,
   and the the affix flags are defined by affix-file.  The  hashed  output
   is  written  to  hash-file.   The  formats  of  the two input files are
   described in ispell(5).  The -s (silent) option  suppresses  the  usual
   status messages that are written to the standard error device.

   The  munchlist  shell  script  is used to reduce the size of dictionary
   files, primarily personal dictionary files.   It  is  also  capable  of
   combining  dictionaries from various sources.  The given files are read
   (standard input if no arguments are given), reduced to a minimal set of
   roots  and  affixes that will match the same list of words, and written
   to standard output.

   Input for munchlist contains of  raw  words  (e.g  from  your  personal
   dictionary files) or root and affix combinations (probably generated in
   earlier munchlist runs).  Each word or root/affix combination  must  be
   on a separate line.

   The  -D  (debug)  option  leaves  temporary files around under standard
   names instead of deleting them, so that the  script  can  be  debugged.
   Warning:  on a multiuser system, this can be a security hole.  To avoid
   possible destruction of important files, don't run the script as  root,
   and  set  MUNCHDEBUGDIR  to  the  name of a directory that only you can

   The -v (verbose) option causes progress  messages  to  be  reported  to
   stderr so you won't get nervous that munchlist has hung.

   If  the -s (strip) option is specified, words that are in the specified
   hash-file are removed from the word list.   This  can  be  useful  with
   personal dictionaries.

   The  -l  option  can  be  used  to  specify an alternate affix-file for
   munching dictionaries in languages other than English.

   The -c option can be used to convert dictionaries that were built  with
   an   older   affix  file,  without  risk  of  accidentally  introducing
   unintended affix combinations into the dictionary.

   The -T option allows  dictionaries  to  be  converted  to  a  canonical
   string-character  format.   The  suffix  specified  is looked up in the
   affix file (-l switch) to determine the  string-character  format  used
   for  the  input  file;  the  output  always  uses the canonical string-
   character format.  For example, a dictionary collected from TeX  source
   files might be converted to canonical format by specifying -T tex.

   The -w option is passed on to ispell.

   The  findaffix  shell  script  is  an  aid  to  writers of new language
   descriptions in choosing affixes.  The given dictionary files (standard
   input if none are given) are examined for possible prefixes (-p switch)
   or suffixes (-s switch, the default).  Each commonly-occurring affix is
   presented  along  with a count of the number of times it appears and an
   estimate of the number of bytes that would be  saved  in  a  dictionary
   hash  file  if  it were added to the language table.  Only affixes that
   generate legal roots (found in the original input) are listed.

   If the "-c" option is not given, the output lines are in the  following


   where  strip  is  the  string  that should be stripped from a root word
   before adding the affix, add is the affix to be added, count is a count
   of  the  number  of  times that this strip/add combination appears, and
   bytes is an estimate of the number of bytes that might be saved in  the
   raw  dictionary  file  if  this combination is added to the affix file.
   The field separator in the output will be the tab  character  specified
   by the -t switch;  the default is a slash ("/").

   If  the  -c  ("clean  output")  option  is given, the appearance of the
   output is  made  visually  cleaner  (but  harder  to  post-process)  by
   changing it to:


   where  strip, add, count, and bytes are as before, and <tab> represents
   the ASCII tab character.

   The method used to generate possible affixes will also generate  longer
   affixes  which  have  common headers or trailers.  For example, the two
   words  "moth"  and  "mother"  will  generate  not  only   the   obvious
   substitution  "+er" but also "-h+her" and "-th+ther" (and possibly even
   longer ones, depending on the value of min).  To prevent cluttering the
   output  with  such  affixes, any affix pair that shares a common header
   (or, for prefixes, trailer) string longer than elim characters (default
   1)  will  be suppressed.  You may want to set "elim" to a value greater
   than 1 if your language has string characters;  usually  the  need  for
   this  parameter will become obvious when you examine the output of your
   findaffix run.

   Normally, the affixes are sorted according to  the  estimate  of  bytes
   saved.   The -f switch may be used to cause the affixes to be sorted by
   frequency of appearance.

   To save output file space, affixes which occur fewer than 10 times  are
   eliminated;  this  limit  may  be  changed  with the -l switch.  The -M
   switch specifies a maximum affix length (default  8).   Affixes  longer
   than  this  will  not be reported.  (This saves on temporary disk space
   and makes the script run faster.)

   Affixes which generate stems shorter than 3 characters are  suppressed.
   (A stem is the word after the strip string has been removed, and before
   the add string has been added.)  This reduces both the running time and
   the  size  of  the  output file.  This limit may be changed with the -m
   switch.  The minimum stem length should only be set to 1 if you have  a
   lot of free time and disk space (in the range of many days and hundreds
   of megabytes).

   The findaffix script requires a non-blank field-separator character for
   internal  use.   Normally,  this character is a slash ("/"), but if the
   slash appears as a character  in  the  input  word  list,  a  different
   character can be specified with the -t switch.

   Ispell  dictionaries  should be expanded before being fed to findaffix;
   in addition, characters that are not in the English alphabet  (if  any)
   should be translated to lowercase.

   The  tryaffix  shell  script is used to estimate the effectiveness of a
   proposed prefix (-p switch) or suffix (-s switch, the default)  with  a
   given  expanded-file.   Only one affix can be tried with each execution
   of tryaffix, although  multiple  arguments  can  be  used  to  describe
   varying  forms of the same affix flag (e.g., the D flag for English can
   add either D or ED  depending  on  whether  a  trailing  E  is  already
   present).   Each  word in the expanded dictionary that ends (or begins)
   with the chosen suffix (or prefix) has that  suffix  (prefix)  removed;
   the  dictionary is then searched for root words that match the stripped
   word.  Normally, all matching roots are written to standard output, but
   if  the  -c  (count)  flag  is given, only a statistical summary of the
   results is written.  The statistics given are  a  count  of  words  the
   affix  potentially  applies  to  and  an  estimate  of  the  number  of
   dictionary bytes that a flag using the affix would save.  The  estimate
   will  be  high if the flag generates words that are currently generated
   by other affix flags (e.g., in English, bathers  can  be  generated  by
   either bath/X or bather/S).

   The dictionary file, expanded-file, must already be expanded (using the
   -e switch of ispell) and sorted, and things will usually work  best  if
   uppercase has been folded to lower with 'tr'.

   The  affix arguments are things to be stripped from the dictionary file
   to produce trial roots: for English, con (prefix) and ing (suffix)  are
   examples.   The  addition  parts of the argument are letters that would
   have been stripped off the root before adding the affix.  For  example,
   in  English  the  affix  ing normally strips e for words ending in that
   letter (e.g., like becomes liking) so we might run:

          tryaffix ing ing+e

   to cover both cases.

   All of the shell scripts contain documentation  as  commentary  at  the
   beginning;  sometimes  these comments contain useful information beyond
   the scope of this manual page.

   It is possible to install ispell in such a way as to only support ASCII
   range text if desired.

   The  icombine  program  is  a helper for munchlist.  It reads a list of
   words in dictionary format (roots plus flags) from the standard  input,
   and  produces  a  reduced list on standard output which combines common
   roots found on adjacent entries.  Identical roots which have  differing
   flags  will  have  their flags combined, and roots which have differing
   capitalizations  will  be  combined  in  a  way  which  only  preserves
   important  capitalization information.  The optional aff-file specifies
   a language file which defines the character sets used and the  meanings
   of  the  various  flags.   The  -T  switch  can be used to select among
   alternative string character types by giving a dummy suffix that can be
   found in an altstringtype statement.  The -w switch is identical to the
   same switch in ispell.

   The ijoin program is a re-implementation of join(1) which handles  long
   lines and 8-bit characters correctly.  The -s switch specifies that the
   sort(1) program  used  to  prepare  the  input  to  ijoin  uses  signed
   comparisons  on  8-bit characters; the -u switch specifies that sort(1)
   uses unsigned comparisons.  All other options and behaviors of  join(1)
   are  duplicated as exactly as possible based on the manual page, except
   that ijoin will not handle newline  as  a  field  separator.   See  the
   join(1) manual page for more information.


          Default dictionary to use, if no -d flag is given.

          Formatter  type  or character encoding to use, if none is chosen
          by a flag option.

          Personal dictionary file name

          Code for file inclusion under the -A option

   TMPDIR Directory used for some of munchlist's temporary files

          Directory used to hold the output of munchlists' -D option.

          List of single-argument TeX keywords that ispell should ignore.

          List of two-argument TeX keywords that ispell should ignore.

          List of HTML keywords that  delimit  text  that  should  not  be

          List  of  HTML  fields that should always be spell-checked, even
          inside a tag.


          Hashed dictionary (may be found in some other  local  directory,
          depending on the system).

          Affix-definition file for munchlist

          For the Lookup function.

          User's private dictionary

          Directory-specific private dictionary


   egrep(1), look(1), join(1), sort(1), spell(1), sq(1), tib (if available
   on your system), ispell(5), english(5)


   On some machines it takes too long for  ispell  to  read  in  the  hash
   table, depending on size.

   When  all  options  are  enabled,  ispell  may  take several seconds to
   generate all the guesses at  corrections  for  a  misspelled  word;  on
   slower machines this time is long enough to be annoying.

   The  hash table is stored as a quarter-megabyte (or larger) array, so a
   PDP-11 or 286 version does not seem likely.

   Ispell should understand more troff syntax, and deal more intelligently
   with contractions.

   Although small personal dictionaries are sorted before they are written
   out, the order of capitalizations of the same word is somewhat random.

   When the -x flag is specified, ispell will  unlink  any  existing  .bak

   There are too many flags, and many of them have non-mnemonic names.

   The -e flag should accept mnemonic arguments instead of numeric ones.

   Munchlist does not deal very gracefully with dictionaries which contain
   "non-word" characters.  Such characters ought to be  deleted  from  the
   dictionary with a warning message.

   Findaffix  and  munchlist  require tremendous amounts of temporary file
   space for large dictionaries.  They do respect the  TMPDIR  environment
   variable,  so  this  space  can  be  redirected.  However, a lot of the
   temporary space needed is for sorting, so TMPDIR is only a partial help
   on systems with an uncooperative sort(1).  ("Cooperative" is defined as
   accepting the undocumented -T switch).  At its  peak  usage,  munchlist
   takes 10 to 40 times the original dictionary's size in Kb.  (The larger
   ratio is for dictionaries that already have heavy affix  use,  such  as
   the  one  distributed  with  ispell).   Munchlist  is  also  very slow;
   munching a normal-sized dictionary  (15K  roots,  45K  expanded  words)
   takes  around  an  hour  on a small workstation.  (Most of this time is
   spent in sort(1), and munchlist can run much faster  on  machines  that
   have  a  more modern sort that makes better use of the memory available
   to it.)  Findaffix is  even  worse;  the  smallest  English  dictionary
   cannot  be processed with this script in a mere 50Kb of free space, and
   even after specifying switches to reduce the temporary space  required,
   the script will run for over 24 hours on a small workstation.


   Pace  Willisson  (pace@mit-vax),  1983,  based  on  the PDP-10 assembly
   version.  That version was written by R. E. Gorin in  1971,  and  later
   revised by W. E. Matson (1974) and W. B. Ackerman (1978).

   Collected, revised, and enhanced for the Usenet by Walt Buehring, 1987.

   Table-driven multi-lingual version by Geoff Kuenning, 1987-88.

   Large dictionaries provided by Bob Devine (vianet!devine).

   A  complete  list  of  contributors  is  too large to list here, but is
   distributed with the ispell sources in the file "Contributors".


   The version of ispell described by this manual  page  is  International
   Ispell Version 3.4.00 8 Feb 2015.

                                 local                           ISPELL(1)


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