dos2unix - DOS/Mac to Unix and vice versa text file format converter


       dos2unix [options] [FILE ...] [-n INFILE OUTFILE ...]
       unix2dos [options] [FILE ...] [-n INFILE OUTFILE ...]


   The Dos2unix package includes utilities "dos2unix" and "unix2dos" to
   convert plain text files in DOS or Mac format to Unix format and vice

   In DOS/Windows text files a line break, also known as newline, is a
   combination of two characters: a Carriage Return (CR) followed by a
   Line Feed (LF). In Unix text files a line break is a single character:
   the Line Feed (LF). In Mac text files, prior to Mac OS X, a line break
   was single Carriage Return (CR) character. Nowadays Mac OS uses Unix
   style (LF) line breaks.

   Besides line breaks Dos2unix can also convert the encoding of files. A
   few DOS code pages can be converted to Unix Latin-1. And Windows
   Unicode (UTF-16) files can be converted to Unix Unicode (UTF-8) files.

   Binary files are automatically skipped, unless conversion is forced.

   Non-regular files, such as directories and FIFOs, are automatically

   Symbolic links and their targets are by default kept untouched.
   Symbolic links can optionally be replaced, or the output can be written
   to the symbolic link target.  Writing to a symbolic link target is not
   supported on Windows.

   Dos2unix was modelled after dos2unix under SunOS/Solaris.  There is one
   important difference with the original SunOS/Solaris version. This
   version does by default in-place conversion (old file mode), while the
   original SunOS/Solaris version only supports paired conversion (new
   file mode). See also options "-o" and "-n". Another difference is that
   the SunOS/Solaris version uses by default iso mode conversion while
   this version uses by default ascii mode conversion.


   --  Treat all following options as file names. Use this option if you
       want to convert files whose names start with a dash. For instance
       to convert a file named "-foo", you can use this command:

           dos2unix -- -foo

       Or in new file mode:

           dos2unix -n -- -foo out.txt

       Convert only line breaks. This is the default conversion mode.

       Conversion between DOS and ISO-8859-1 character set. See also
       section CONVERSION MODES.

       Use Windows code page 1252 (Western European).

       Use DOS code page 437 (US). This is the default code page used for
       ISO conversion.

       Use DOS code page 850 (Western European).

       Use DOS code page 860 (Portuguese).

       Use DOS code page 863 (French Canadian).

       Use DOS code page 865 (Nordic).

   -7  Convert 8 bit characters to 7 bit space.

   -b, --keep-bom
       Keep Byte Order Mark (BOM). When the input file has a BOM, write a
       BOM in the output file. This is the default behavior when
       converting to DOS line breaks. See also option "-r".

   -c, --convmode CONVMODE
       Set conversion mode. Where CONVMODE is one of: ascii, 7bit, iso,
       mac with ascii being the default.

   -D, --display-enc ENCODING
       Set encoding of displayed text. Where ENCODING is one of: ansi,
       unicode, unicodebom, utf8, utf8bom with ansi being the default.

       This option is only available in dos2unix for Windows with Unicode
       file name support. This option has no effect on the actual file
       names read and written, only on how they are displayed.

       There are several methods for displaying text in a Windows console
       based on the encoding of the text. They all have their own
       advantages and disadvantages.

           Dos2unix's default method is to use ANSI encoded text. The
           advantage is that it is backwards compatible. It works with
           raster and TrueType fonts. In some regions you may need to
           change the active DOS OEM code page to the Windows system ANSI
           code page using the "chcp" command, because dos2unix uses the
           Windows system code page.

           The disadvantage of ansi is that international file names with
           characters not inside the system default code page are not
           displayed properly. You will see a question mark, or a wrong
           symbol instead. When you don't work with foreign file names
           this method is OK.

       unicode, unicodebom
           The advantage of unicode (the Windows name for UTF-16) encoding
           is that text is usually properly displayed. There is no need to
           change the active code page.  You may need to set the console's
           font to a TrueType font to have international characters
           displayed properly. When a character is not included in the
           TrueType font you usually see a small square, sometimes with a
           question mark in it.

           When you use the ConEmu console all text is displayed properly,
           because ConEmu automatically selects a good font.

           The disadvantage of unicode is that it is not compatible with
           ASCII. The output is not easy to handle when you redirect it to
           another program.

           When method "unicodebom" is used the Unicode text will be
           preceded with a BOM (Byte Order Mark). A BOM is required for
           correct redirection or piping in PowerShell.

       utf8, utf8bom
           The advantage of utf8 is that it is compatible with ASCII. You
           need to set the console's font to a TrueType font. With a
           TrueType font the text is displayed similar as with the
           "unicode" encoding.

           The disadvantage is that when you use the default raster font
           all non-ASCII characters are displayed wrong. Not only unicode
           file names, but also translated messages become unreadable. On
           Windows configured for an East-Asian region you may see a lot
           of flickering of the console when the messages are displayed.

           In a ConEmu console the utf8 encoding method works well.

           When method "utf8bom" is used the UTF-8 text will be preceded
           with a BOM (Byte Order Mark). A BOM is required for correct
           redirection or piping in PowerShell.

       The default encoding can be changed with environment variable
       DOS2UNIX_DISPLAY_ENC by setting it to "unicode", "unicodebom",
       "utf8", or "utf8bom".

   -f, --force
       Force conversion of binary files.

   -gb, --gb18030
       On Windows UTF-16 files are by default converted to UTF-8,
       regardless of the locale setting. Use this option to convert UTF-16
       files to GB18030. This option is only available on Windows. See
       also section GB18030.

   -h, --help
       Display help and exit.

   -i[FLAGS], --info[=FLAGS] FILE ...
       Display file information. No conversion is done.

       The following information is printed, in this order: number of DOS
       line breaks, number of Unix line breaks, number of Mac line breaks,
       byte order mark, text or binary, file name.

       Example output:

            6       0       0  no_bom    text    dos.txt
            0       6       0  no_bom    text    unix.txt
            0       0       6  no_bom    text    mac.txt
            6       6       6  no_bom    text    mixed.txt
           50       0       0  UTF-16LE  text    utf16le.txt
            0      50       0  no_bom    text    utf8unix.txt
           50       0       0  UTF-8     text    utf8dos.txt
            2     418     219  no_bom    binary  dos2unix.exe

       Note that sometimes a binary file can be mistaken for a text file.
       See also option "-s".

       Optionally extra flags can be set to change the output. One or more
       flags can be added.

       d   Print number of DOS line breaks.

       u   Print number of Unix line breaks.

       m   Print number of Mac line breaks.

       b   Print the byte order mark.

       t   Print if file is text or binary.

       c   Print only the files that would be converted.

           With the "c" flag dos2unix will print only the files that
           contain DOS line breaks, unix2dos will print only file names
           that have Unix line breaks.

       h   Print a header.

       p   Show file names without path.


       Show information for all *.txt files:

           dos2unix -i *.txt

       Show only the number of DOS line breaks and Unix line breaks:

           dos2unix -idu *.txt

       Show only the byte order mark:

           dos2unix --info=b *.txt

       List the files that have DOS line breaks:

           dos2unix -ic *.txt

       List the files that have Unix line breaks:

           unix2dos -ic *.txt

       Convert only files that have DOS line breaks and leave the other
       files untouched:

           dos2unix -ic *.txt | xargs dos2unix

       Find text files that have DOS line breaks:

           find -name '*.txt' | xargs dos2unix -ic

   -k, --keepdate
       Keep the date stamp of output file same as input file.

   -L, --license
       Display program's license.

   -l, --newline
       Add additional newline.

       dos2unix: Only DOS line breaks are changed to two Unix line breaks.
       In Mac mode only Mac line breaks are changed to two Unix line

       unix2dos: Only Unix line breaks are changed to two DOS line breaks.
       In Mac mode Unix line breaks are changed to two Mac line breaks.

   -m, --add-bom
       Write a Byte Order Mark (BOM) in the output file. By default an
       UTF-8 BOM is written.

       When the input file is UTF-16, and the option "-u" is used, an
       UTF-16 BOM will be written.

       Never use this option when the output encoding is other than UTF-8,
       UTF-16, or GB18030. See also section UNICODE.

   -n, --newfile INFILE OUTFILE ...
       New file mode. Convert file INFILE and write output to file
       OUTFILE.  File names must be given in pairs and wildcard names
       should not be used or you will lose your files.

       The person who starts the conversion in new file (paired) mode will
       be the owner of the converted file. The read/write permissions of
       the new file will be the permissions of the original file minus the
       umask(1) of the person who runs the conversion.

   -o, --oldfile FILE ...
       Old file mode. Convert file FILE and overwrite output to it. The
       program defaults to run in this mode. Wildcard names may be used.

       In old file (in-place) mode the converted file gets the same owner,
       group, and read/write permissions as the original file. Also when
       the file is converted by another user who has write permissions on
       the file (e.g. user root).  The conversion will be aborted when it
       is not possible to preserve the original values.  Change of owner
       could mean that the original owner is not able to read the file any
       more. Change of group could be a security risk, the file could be
       made readable for persons for whom it is not intended.
       Preservation of owner, group, and read/write permissions is only
       supported on Unix.

   -q, --quiet
       Quiet mode. Suppress all warnings and messages. The return value is
       zero.  Except when wrong command-line options are used.

   -r, --remove-bom
       Remove Byte Order Mark (BOM). Do not write a BOM in the output
       file.  This is the default behavior when converting to Unix line
       breaks.  See also option "-b".

   -s, --safe
       Skip binary files (default).

       The skipping of binary files is done to avoid accidental mistakes.
       Be aware that the detection of binary files is not 100% foolproof.
       Input files are scanned for binary symbols which are typically not
       found in text files. It is possible that a binary file contains
       only normal text characters. Such a binary file will mistakenly be
       seen as a text file.

   -u, --keep-utf16
       Keep the original UTF-16 encoding of the input file. The output
       file will be written in the same UTF-16 encoding, little or big
       endian, as the input file.  This prevents transformation to UTF-8.
       An UTF-16 BOM will be written accordingly. This option can be
       disabled with the "-ascii" option.

   -ul, --assume-utf16le
       Assume that the input file format is UTF-16LE.

       When there is a Byte Order Mark in the input file the BOM has
       priority over this option.

       When you made a wrong assumption (the input file was not in
       UTF-16LE format) and the conversion succeeded, you will get an
       UTF-8 output file with wrong text.  You can undo the wrong
       conversion with iconv(1) by converting the UTF-8 output file back
       to UTF-16LE. This will bring back the original file.

       The assumption of UTF-16LE works as a conversion mode. By switching
       to the default ascii mode the UTF-16LE assumption is turned off.

   -ub, --assume-utf16be
       Assume that the input file format is UTF-16BE.

       This option works the same as option "-ul".

   -v, --verbose
       Display verbose messages. Extra information is displayed about Byte
       Order Marks and the amount of converted line breaks.

   -F, --follow-symlink
       Follow symbolic links and convert the targets.

   -R, --replace-symlink
       Replace symbolic links with converted files (original target files
       remain unchanged).

   -S, --skip-symlink
       Keep symbolic links and targets unchanged (default).

   -V, --version
       Display version information and exit.


   In normal mode line breaks are converted from DOS to Unix and vice
   versa.  Mac line breaks are not converted.

   In Mac mode line breaks are converted from Mac to Unix and vice versa.
   DOS line breaks are not changed.

   To run in Mac mode use the command-line option "-c mac" or use the
   commands "mac2unix" or "unix2mac".


       In mode "ascii" only line breaks are converted. This is the default
       conversion mode.

       Although the name of this mode is ASCII, which is a 7 bit standard,
       the actual mode is 8 bit. Use always this mode when converting
       Unicode UTF-8 files.

       In this mode all 8 bit non-ASCII characters (with values from 128
       to 255) are converted to a 7 bit space.

   iso Characters are converted between a DOS character set (code page)
       and ISO character set ISO-8859-1 (Latin-1) on Unix. DOS characters
       without ISO-8859-1 equivalent, for which conversion is not
       possible, are converted to a dot. The same counts for ISO-8859-1
       characters without DOS counterpart.

       When only option "-iso" is used dos2unix will try to determine the
       active code page. When this is not possible dos2unix will use
       default code page CP437, which is mainly used in the USA.  To force
       a specific code page use options "-437" (US), "-850" (Western
       European), "-860" (Portuguese), "-863" (French Canadian), or "-865"
       (Nordic).  Windows code page CP1252 (Western European) is also
       supported with option "-1252". For other code pages use dos2unix in
       combination with iconv(1).  Iconv can convert between a long list
       of character encodings.

       Never use ISO conversion on Unicode text files. It will corrupt
       UTF-8 encoded files.

       Some examples:

       Convert from DOS default code page to Unix Latin-1:

           dos2unix -iso -n in.txt out.txt

       Convert from DOS CP850 to Unix Latin-1:

           dos2unix -850 -n in.txt out.txt

       Convert from Windows CP1252 to Unix Latin-1:

           dos2unix -1252 -n in.txt out.txt

       Convert from Windows CP1252 to Unix UTF-8 (Unicode):

           iconv -f CP1252 -t UTF-8 in.txt | dos2unix > out.txt

       Convert from Unix Latin-1 to DOS default code page:

           unix2dos -iso -n in.txt out.txt

       Convert from Unix Latin-1 to DOS CP850:

           unix2dos -850 -n in.txt out.txt

       Convert from Unix Latin-1 to Windows CP1252:

           unix2dos -1252 -n in.txt out.txt

       Convert from Unix UTF-8 (Unicode) to Windows CP1252:

           unix2dos < in.txt | iconv -f UTF-8 -t CP1252 > out.txt

       See also <http://czyborra.com/charsets/codepages.html> and


   There exist different Unicode encodings. On Unix and Linux Unicode
   files are typically encoded in UTF-8 encoding. On Windows Unicode text
   files can be encoded in UTF-8, UTF-16, or UTF-16 big endian, but are
   mostly encoded in UTF-16 format.

   Unicode text files can have DOS, Unix or Mac line breaks, like regular
   text files.

   All versions of dos2unix and unix2dos can convert UTF-8 encoded files,
   because UTF-8 was designed for backward compatibility with ASCII.

   Dos2unix and unix2dos with Unicode UTF-16 support, can read little and
   big endian UTF-16 encoded text files. To see if dos2unix was built with
   UTF-16 support type "dos2unix -V".

   On Unix/Linux UTF-16 encoded files are converted to the locale
   character encoding. Use the locale(1) command to find out what the
   locale character encoding is. When conversion is not possible a
   conversion error will occur and the file will be skipped.

   On Windows UTF-16 files are by default converted to UTF-8. UTF-8
   formatted text files are well supported on both Windows and Unix/Linux.

   UTF-16 and UTF-8 encoding are fully compatible, there will no text be
   lost in the conversion. When an UTF-16 to UTF-8 conversion error
   occurs, for instance when the UTF-16 input file contains an error, the
   file will be skipped.

   When option "-u" is used, the output file will be written in the same
   UTF-16 encoding as the input file. Option "-u" prevents conversion to

   Dos2unix and unix2dos have no option to convert UTF-8 files to UTF-16.

   ISO and 7-bit mode conversion do not work on UTF-16 files.

   Byte Order Mark
   On Windows Unicode text files typically have a Byte Order Mark (BOM),
   because many Windows programs (including Notepad) add BOMs by default.
   See also <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byte_order_mark>.

   On Unix Unicode files typically don't have a BOM. It is assumed that
   text files are encoded in the locale character encoding.

   Dos2unix can only detect if a file is in UTF-16 format if the file has
   a BOM.  When an UTF-16 file doesn't have a BOM, dos2unix will see the
   file as a binary file.

   Use option "-ul" or "-ub" to convert an UTF-16 file without BOM.

   Dos2unix writes by default no BOM in the output file. With option "-b"
   Dos2unix writes a BOM when the input file has a BOM.

   Unix2dos writes by default a BOM in the output file when the input file
   has a BOM. Use option "-r" to remove the BOM.

   Dos2unix and unix2dos write always a BOM when option "-m" is used.

   Unicode file names on Windows
   Dos2unix has optional support for reading and writing Unicode file
   names in the Windows Command Prompt. That means that dos2unix can open
   files that have characters in the name that are not part of the default
   system ANSI code page.  To see if dos2unix for Windows was built with
   Unicode file name support type "dos2unix -V".

   There are some issues with displaying Unicode file names in a Windows
   console.  See option "-D", "--display-enc". The file names may be
   displayed wrongly in the console, but the files will be written with
   the correct name.

   Unicode examples
   Convert from Windows UTF-16 (with BOM) to Unix UTF-8:

       dos2unix -n in.txt out.txt

   Convert from Windows UTF-16LE (without BOM) to Unix UTF-8:

       dos2unix -ul -n in.txt out.txt

   Convert from Unix UTF-8 to Windows UTF-8 with BOM:

       unix2dos -m -n in.txt out.txt

   Convert from Unix UTF-8 to Windows UTF-16:

       unix2dos < in.txt | iconv -f UTF-8 -t UTF-16 > out.txt


   GB18030 is a Chinese government standard. A mandatory subset of the
   GB18030 standard is officially required for all software products sold
   in China. See also <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GB_18030>.

   GB18030 is fully compatible with Unicode, and can be considered an
   unicode transformation format. Like UTF-8, GB18030 is compatible with
   ASCII. GB18030 is also compatible with Windows code page 936, also
   known as GBK.

   On Unix/Linux UTF-16 files are converted to GB18030 when the locale
   encoding is set to GB18030. Note that this will only work if the locale
   is supported by the system. Use command "locale -a" to get the list of
   supported locales.

   On Windows you need to use option "-gb" to convert UTF-16 files to

   GB18030 encoded files can have a Byte Order Mark, like Unicode files.


   Read input from 'stdin' and write output to 'stdout':

       dos2unix < a.txt
       cat a.txt | dos2unix

   Convert and replace a.txt. Convert and replace b.txt:

       dos2unix a.txt b.txt
       dos2unix -o a.txt b.txt

   Convert and replace a.txt in ascii conversion mode:

       dos2unix a.txt

   Convert and replace a.txt in ascii conversion mode, convert and replace
   b.txt in 7bit conversion mode:

       dos2unix a.txt -c 7bit b.txt
       dos2unix -c ascii a.txt -c 7bit b.txt
       dos2unix -ascii a.txt -7 b.txt

   Convert a.txt from Mac to Unix format:

       dos2unix -c mac a.txt
       mac2unix a.txt

   Convert a.txt from Unix to Mac format:

       unix2dos -c mac a.txt
       unix2mac a.txt

   Convert and replace a.txt while keeping original date stamp:

       dos2unix -k a.txt
       dos2unix -k -o a.txt

   Convert a.txt and write to e.txt:

       dos2unix -n a.txt e.txt

   Convert a.txt and write to e.txt, keep date stamp of e.txt same as

       dos2unix -k -n a.txt e.txt

   Convert and replace a.txt, convert b.txt and write to e.txt:

       dos2unix a.txt -n b.txt e.txt
       dos2unix -o a.txt -n b.txt e.txt

   Convert c.txt and write to e.txt, convert and replace a.txt, convert
   and replace b.txt, convert d.txt and write to f.txt:

       dos2unix -n c.txt e.txt -o a.txt b.txt -n d.txt f.txt


   Use dos2unix in combination with the find(1) and xargs(1) commands to
   recursively convert text files in a directory tree structure. For
   instance to convert all .txt files in the directory tree under the
   current directory type:

       find . -name '*.txt' |xargs dos2unix

   In a Windows Command Prompt the following command can be used:

       for /R %G in (*.txt) do dos2unix "%G"

   PowerShell users can use the following command in Windows PowerShell:

       get-childitem -path . -filter '*.txt' -recurse | foreach-object {dos2unix $_.Fullname}


       The primary language is selected with the environment variable
       LANG. The LANG variable consists out of several parts. The first
       part is in small letters the language code. The second is optional
       and is the country code in capital letters, preceded with an
       underscore. There is also an optional third part: character
       encoding, preceded with a dot. A few examples for POSIX standard
       type shells:

           export LANG=nl               Dutch
           export LANG=nl_NL            Dutch, The Netherlands
           export LANG=nl_BE            Dutch, Belgium
           export LANG=es_ES            Spanish, Spain
           export LANG=es_MX            Spanish, Mexico
           export LANG=en_US.iso88591   English, USA, Latin-1 encoding
           export LANG=en_GB.UTF-8      English, UK, UTF-8 encoding

       For a complete list of language and country codes see the gettext

       On Unix systems you can use the command locale(1) to get locale
       specific information.

       With the LANGUAGE environment variable you can specify a priority
       list of languages, separated by colons. Dos2unix gives preference
       to LANGUAGE over LANG.  For instance, first Dutch and then German:
       "LANGUAGE=nl:de". You have to first enable localization, by setting
       LANG (or LC_ALL) to a value other than "C", before you can use a
       language priority list through the LANGUAGE variable. See also the
       gettext manual:

       If you select a language which is not available you will get the
       standard English messages.

       With the environment variable DOS2UNIX_LOCALEDIR the LOCALEDIR set
       during compilation can be overruled. LOCALEDIR is used to find the
       language files. The GNU default value is "/usr/local/share/locale".
       Option --version will display the LOCALEDIR that is used.

       Example (POSIX shell):

           export DOS2UNIX_LOCALEDIR=$HOME/share/locale


   On success, zero is returned.  When a system error occurs the last
   system error will be returned. For other errors 1 is returned.

   The return value is always zero in quiet mode, except when wrong
   command-line options are used.







   Benjamin Lin - <blin@socs.uts.edu.au>, Bernd Johannes Wuebben (mac2unix
   mode) - <wuebben@kde.org>, Christian Wurll (add extra newline) -
   <wurll@ira.uka.de>, Erwin Waterlander - <waterlan@xs4all.nl>

   Project page: <http://waterlan.home.xs4all.nl/dos2unix.html>

   SourceForge page: <http://sourceforge.net/projects/dos2unix/>


   file(1) find(1) iconv(1) locale(1) xargs(1)


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