recode - converts files between character sets


   recode [OPTION]... [ [CHARSET] | REQUEST [FILE]... ]


   Free  `recode'  converts  files  between  various  character  sets  and

   If a long option shows an argument as mandatory, then it  is  mandatory
   for   the   equivalent  short  option  also.   Similarly  for  optional

   -l, --list[=FORMAT]
          list one or all known charsets and aliases

   -k, --known=PAIRS
          restrict charsets according to known PAIRS list

   -h, --header[=[LN/]NAME]
          write table NAME on stdout using LN, then exit

   -F, --freeze-tables
          write out a C module holding all tables

   -T, --find-subsets
          report all charsets being subset of others

   -C, --copyright
          display Copyright and copying conditions

   --help display this help and exit

          output version information and exit

   Operation modes:
   -v, --verbose
          explain sequence of steps and report progress

   -q, --quiet, --silent
          inhibit messages about irreversible recodings

   -f, --force
          force recodings even when not reversible

   -t, --touch
          touch the recoded files after replacement

   -i, --sequence=files
          use intermediate files for sequencing passes

          use memory buffers for sequencing passes

   -p, --sequence=pipe
          use pipe machinery for sequencing passes

   Fine tuning:
   -s, --strict
          use strict mappings, even loose characters

   -d, --diacritics
          convert only diacritics or alike for HTML/LaTeX

   -S, --source[=LN]
          limit recoding to strings and comments as for LN

   -c, --colons
          use colons instead of double quotes for diaeresis

   -g, --graphics
          approximate IBMPC rulers by ASCII graphics

   -x, --ignore=CHARSET
          ignore CHARSET while choosing a recoding path

   Option -l with no  FORMAT  nor  CHARSET  list  available  charsets  and
   surfaces.   FORMAT  is  `decimal', `octal', `hexadecimal' or `full' (or
   one of `dohf').  Unless DEFAULT_CHARSET is set in environment,  CHARSET
   defaults  to  the  locale  dependent  encoding,  determined  by LC_ALL,
   LC_CTYPE, LANG.  With -k, possible before charsets are listed  for  the
   given  after  CHARSET,  both  being tabular charsets, with PAIRS of the
   form `BEF1:AFT1,BEF2:AFT2,...'  and BEFs and AFTs being codes are given
   as  decimal  numbers.   LN  is  some language, it may be `c', `perl' or
   `po'; `c' is the default.

   REQUEST     is      SUBREQUEST[,SUBREQUEST]...;      SUBREQUEST      is
   often looks like BEFORE..AFTER, with BEFORE and AFTER  being  charsets.
   An  omitted CHARSET implies the usual charset; an omitted [/SURFACE]...
   means the implied surfaces for CHARSET; a / with an empty surface  name
   means no surfaces at all.  See the manual.

   If  none  of -i and -p are given, presume -p if no FILE, else -i.  Each
   FILE is recoded over itself, destroying the original.  If  no  FILE  is
   specified, then act as a filter and recode stdin to stdout.


   Written by Franc,ois Pinard <>.


   Report bugs to <>.


   Copyright  1990, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is


   The  full  documentation  for recode is maintained as a Texinfo manual.
   If the info and recode programs are properly installed  at  your  site,
   the command

          info recode

   should give you access to the complete manual.


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