operf - Performance profiler tool for Linux


   operf  [ options ] [ --system-wide | --pid <pid> | [ command [ args ] ]


   Operf is the profiler tool provided with OProfile. Operf uses the Linux
   Performance  Events  Subsystem and, thus, does not require the obsolete
   oprofile kernel driver.

   By default, operf uses <current_dir>/oprofile_data as  the  session-dir
   and  stores  profiling  data  there.  You can change this by way of the
   --session-dir option. The usual post-profiling analysis tools  such  as
   opreport(1)  and opannotate(1) can be used to generate profile reports.
   Unless a session-dir is specified, the post-processing  analysis  tools
   will  search  for samples in <current_dir>/oprofile_data first. If that
   directory does not exist, the post-processing tools  use  the  standard
   session-dir of /var/lib/oprofile.

   Statistics,  such  as  total  samples  received  and  lost samples, are
   written  to  the  operf.log   file   that   can   be   found   in   the
   <session_dir>/samples directory.


   One (and only one) of the following run modes must be specified:

          The  command  or application to be profiled.  args are the input
          arguments that the command or application requires.

   --pid / -p PID
          This option enables operf to profile a running application.  PID
          should  be  the  process  ID of the process you wish to profile.
          When finished profiling (e.g., when the profiled process  ends),
          press  Ctrl-c  to  stop  operf.  If  you  run  operf  --pid as a
          background job (i.e., with  the  &),  you  must  stop  it  in  a
          controlled manner in order for it to process the profile data it
          has collected.  Use kill -SIGINT <operf-PID> for this purpose.

          Limitation: When using this option to profile  a  multi-threaded
          application that also forks new processes, be aware that samples
          for processes that are forked before profiling  is  started  may
          not be recorded (depending on timing of thread creation and when
          operf is started).

   --system-wide / -s
          This option is for performing a system-wide profile.   You  must
          have  root  authority  to run operf in this mode.  When finished
          profiling, Ctrl-c to stop operf. If you run operf  --system-wide
          as  a  background  job (i.e., with the &), you must stop it in a
          controlled manner in order for it to process the profile data it
          has  collected.   Use kill -SIGINT <operf-PID> for this purpose.
          It is recommended that when running operf with this option,  the
          user's   current   working   directory  should  be  /root  or  a
          subdirectory of /root to avoid  storing  sample  data  files  in
          locations accessible by regular users.


   --vmlinux / -k vmlinux_path
          A  vmlinux  file that matches the running kernel that has symbol
          and/or debuginfo.  Kernel samples will  be  attributed  to  this
          binary,   allowing  post-processing  tools  (like  opreport)  to
          attribute samples to the appropriate kernel symbols.

          The   kernel   symbol   information   may   be   obtained   from
          /proc/kallsyms if the user does not specify a vmlinux file.  The
          symbol addresses are given in /proc/kallsyms if permitted by the
          setting of /proc/sys/kernel/kptr_restrict.

          If the --vmlinux option is not used and kernel symbols cannot be
          obtained  from  /proc/kallsyms,  then  all  kernel  samples  are
          attributed to "no-vmlinux", which is simply a bucket to hold the
          samples and not an actual file.

   --events / -e event1[,event2[,...]]
          This option is for  passing  a  comma-separated  list  of  event
          specifications for profiling. Each event spec is of the form:

          The  count  value  is  used  to  control  the  sampling rate for
          profiling; it is the number of events to occur between  samples.
          The rate is lowered by specifying a higher count value --- i.e., a
          higher number of events to occur between samples.

          You can specify unitmask values using either a  numerical  value
          (hex  values  must  begin  with "0x") or a symbolic name (if the
          name=<um_name> field is shown in the ophelp  output).  For  some
          named  unit  masks,  the hex value is not unique; thus, OProfile
          tools enforce specifying such unit masks value by name.   If  no
          unit  mask  is  specified,  the  default unit mask value for the
          event is used.

          The kernel and user parts of the event specification are  binary
          values ('1' or '0') indicating whether or not to collect samples
          for kernel space and user space.
          Note: In order to specify the kernel/user bits,  you  must  also
          specify  a  unitmask  value,  even if the processor type (or the
          specified event) does not use unit masks --- in  which  case,  use
          the value '0' to signify a null unit mask; for example:
             -e INST_RETIRED_ANY_P:100000:0:1:0
                                   ^      ^ ^ ^
                                   |      | | |--- '0': do not record user
          space samples
                                   |      | |-- '1': record  kernel  space
                                   |      |-- '0': the null unit mask
                                   |--count value

          Event  names  for  some  IBM  PowerPC  systems include a _GRP<n>
          (group number) suffix. You can pass either the full  event  name
          or  the base event name (i.e., without the suffix) to operf.  If
          the base event name is passed, operf will  automatically  choose
          an appropriate group number suffix for the event; thus, OProfile
          post-processing tools will always show  real  event  names  that
          include the group number suffix.  When no event specification is
          given, the default event for the running processor type will  be
          used for profiling.  Use ophelp to list the available events for
          your processor type.

   --callgraph / -g
          This option enables the callgraph to be saved during  profiling.
          NOTE:  The  full  callchain  is  recorded,  so there is no depth

   --separate-thread / -t
          This option categorizes samples by thread group  ID  (tgid)  and
          thread  ID  (tid).  The '--separate-thread' option is useful for
          seeing per-thread samples in multi-threaded applications.   When
          used   in  conjunction  with  the  '--system-wide'  option,  the
          '--separate-thread' option is also useful for seeing per-process
          (i.e.,  per-thread  group)  samples  for the case where multiple
          processes are executing the same program during a profiling run.

   --separate-cpu / -c
          This option categorizes samples by cpu.

   --session-dir / -d path
          This option specifies the session path to hold the sample  data.
          If  not  specified,  the  data  is  saved  in  the oprofile_data
          directory on the current path.

   --lazy-conversion / -l
          Use  this  option  to  reduce  the  overhead  of  operf   during
          profiling.  Normally,  profile  data received from the kernel is
          converted to OProfile format  during  profiling  time.  This  is
          typically  not an issue when profiling a single application. But
          when using the --system-wide option, this on-the-fly  conversion
          process  can  cause  noticeable  overhead,  particularly on busy
          multi-processor systems. The  --lazy-conversion  option  directs
          operf  to wait until profiling is completed to do the conversion
          of profile data.

          Note: This option is not recommended to be used  in  conjunction
          with  the  --pid  option for profiling multi-threaded processes.
          Depending on the order of thread creation  (or  forking  of  new
          processes),   you   may   not   get  any  samples  for  the  new

   --append / -a
          By   default,   operf    moves    old    profile    data    from
          <session_dir>/samples/current to <session_dir>/samples/previous.
          If a 'previous' profile already existed, it  will  be  replaced.
          If  the  --append  option is passed, old profile data is left in
          place and new  profile  data  will  be  added  to  it,  and  the
          'previous'  profile  (if one existed) will remain untouched.  To
          access  the   'previous'   profile,   simply   add   a   session
          specification   to  the  normal  invocation  of  oprofile  post-
          processing tools.  For example:
             opreport session:previous

   --verbose / -V level
          A comma-separated list of  debugging  control  values,  used  to
          increase the verbosity of the output.  Valid values are:  debug,
          record, convert, misc, sfile, arcs, or the special value, 'all'.

   --version / -v
          Show operf version.

   --help / -h
          Display brief usage message.

   --usage / -u
          Display brief usage message.


   $ operf make


   This man page is current for oprofile-1.1.0.


   opreport(1), opannotate(1).


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