named - Internet domain name server


   named [-4] [-6] [-c config-file] [-d debug-level] [-D string]
         [-E engine-name] [-f] [-g] [-M option] [-m flag] [-n #cpus]
         [-p port] [-s] [-S #max-socks] [-t directory] [-U #listeners]
         [-u user] [-v] [-V] [-x cache-file]


   named is a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part of the BIND 9
   distribution from ISC. For more information on the DNS, see RFCs 1033,
   1034, and 1035.

   When invoked without arguments, named will read the default
   configuration file /etc/named.conf, read any initial data, and listen
   for queries.


       Use IPv4 only even if the host machine is capable of IPv6.  -4 and
       -6 are mutually exclusive.

       Use IPv6 only even if the host machine is capable of IPv4.  -4 and
       -6 are mutually exclusive.

   -c config-file
       Use config-file as the configuration file instead of the default,
       /etc/named.conf. To ensure that reloading the configuration file
       continues to work after the server has changed its working
       directory due to to a possible directory option in the
       configuration file, config-file should be an absolute pathname.

   -d debug-level
       Set the daemon's debug level to debug-level. Debugging traces from
       named become more verbose as the debug level increases.

   -D string
       Specifies a string that is used to identify a instance of named in
       a process listing. The contents of string are not examined.

   -E engine-name
       When applicable, specifies the hardware to use for cryptographic
       operations, such as a secure key store used for signing.

       When BIND is built with OpenSSL PKCS#11 support, this defaults to
       the string "pkcs11", which identifies an OpenSSL engine that can
       drive a cryptographic accelerator or hardware service module. When
       BIND is built with native PKCS#11 cryptography
       (--enable-native-pkcs11), it defaults to the path of the PKCS#11
       provider library specified via "--with-pkcs11".

       Run the server in the foreground (i.e. do not daemonize).

       Run the server in the foreground and force all logging to stderr.

   -M option
       Sets the default memory context options. Currently the only
       supported option is external, which causes the internal memory
       manager to be bypassed in favor of system-provided memory
       allocation functions.

   -m flag
       Turn on memory usage debugging flags. Possible flags are usage,
       trace, record, size, and mctx. These correspond to the
       ISC_MEM_DEBUGXXXX flags described in <isc/mem.h>.

   -n #cpus
       Create #cpus worker threads to take advantage of multiple CPUs. If
       not specified, named will try to determine the number of CPUs
       present and create one thread per CPU. If it is unable to determine
       the number of CPUs, a single worker thread will be created.

   -p port
       Listen for queries on port port. If not specified, the default is
       port 53.

       Write memory usage statistics to stdout on exit.
              Note: This option is mainly of interest to BIND 9 developers
              and may be removed or changed in a future release.

   -S #max-socks
       Allow named to use up to #max-socks sockets. The default value is
       4096 on systems built with default configuration options, and 21000
       on systems built with "configure --with-tuning=large".
              Warning: This option should be unnecessary for the vast
              majority of users. The use of this option could even be
              harmful because the specified value may exceed the
              limitation of the underlying system API. It is therefore set
              only when the default configuration causes exhaustion of
              file descriptors and the operational environment is known to
              support the specified number of sockets. Note also that the
              actual maximum number is normally a little fewer than the
              specified value because named reserves some file descriptors
              for its internal use.

   -t directory
       Chroot to directory after processing the command line arguments,
       but before reading the configuration file.
              Warning: This option should be used in conjunction with the
              -u option, as chrooting a process running as root doesn't
              enhance security on most systems; the way chroot(2) is
              defined allows a process with root privileges to escape a
              chroot jail.

   -U #listeners
       Use #listeners worker threads to listen for incoming UDP packets on
       each address. If not specified, named will calculate a default
       value based on the number of detected CPUs: 1 for 1 CPU, 2 for 2-4
       CPUs, and the number of detected CPUs divided by 2 for values
       higher than 4. If -n has been set to a higher value than the number
       of detected CPUs, then -U may be increased as high as that value,
       but no higher.

   -u user
       Setuid to user after completing privileged operations, such as
       creating sockets that listen on privileged ports.
              Note: On Linux, named uses the kernel's capability mechanism
              to drop all root privileges except the ability to bind(2) to
              a privileged port and set process resource limits.
              Unfortunately, this means that the -u option only works when
              named is run on kernel 2.2.18 or later, or kernel
              2.3.99-pre3 or later, since previous kernels did not allow
              privileges to be retained after setuid(2).

       Report the version number and exit.

       Report the version number and build options, and exit.

   -x cache-file
       Load data from cache-file into the cache of the default view.
              Warning: This option must not be used. It is only of
              interest to BIND 9 developers and may be removed or changed
              in a future release.


   In routine operation, signals should not be used to control the
   nameserver; rndc should be used instead.

       Force a reload of the server.

       Shut down the server.

   The result of sending any other signals to the server is undefined.


   The named configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here.
   A complete description is provided in the BIND 9 Administrator
   Reference Manual.

   named inherits the umask (file creation mode mask) from the parent
   process. If files created by named, such as journal files, need to have
   custom permissions, the umask should be set explicitly in the script
   used to start the named process.


       The default configuration file.

       The default process-id file.


   RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035, named-checkconf(8), named-checkzone(8),
   rndc(8), lwresd(8), named.conf(5), BIND 9 Administrator Reference


   Internet Systems Consortium


   Copyright  2004-2009, 2011, 2013-2015 Internet Systems Consortium,
   Inc. ("ISC")
   Copyright  2000, 2001, 2003 Internet Software Consortium.


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