Mail::SPF::Result − SPF result class


For the general usage of Mail::SPF::Result objects in code that calls Mail::SPF, see Mail::SPF. For the detailed interface of Mail::SPF::Result and its derivatives, see below.

Throwing results

    package Mail::SPF::Foo;
    use Error ':try';
    use Mail::SPF::Result;
    sub foo {
        if (...) {
            $server−>throw_result('pass', $request)
        else {
            $server−>throw_result('permerror', $request, 'Invalid foo');

Catching results

    package Mail::SPF::Bar;
    use Error ':try';
    use Mail::SPF::Foo;
    try {
    catch Mail::SPF::Result with {
        my ($result) = @_;

Using results

    my $result_name     = $result−>name;
    my $result_code     = $result−>code;
    my $request         = $result−>request;
    my $local_exp       = $result−>local_explanation;
    my $authority_exp   = $result−>authority_explanation
        if $result−>can('authority_explanation');
    my $spf_header      = $result−>received_spf_header;


An object of class Mail::SPF::Result represents the result of an SPF request.

There is usually no need to construct an SPF result object directly using the "new" constructor. Instead, use the "throw" class method to signal to the calling code that a definite SPF result has been determined. In other words, use Mail::SPF::Result and its derivatives just like exceptions. See Error or "eval" in perlfunc for how to handle exceptions in Perl.

The following constructor is provided:
new($server, $request)
: returns Mail::SPF::Result
new($server, $request,
$text): returns Mail::SPF::Result

Creates a new SPF result object and associates the given Mail::SPF::Server and Mail::SPF::Request objects with it. An optional result text may be specified.

Class methods
The following class methods are provided:
throw($server, $request)
: throws Mail::SPF::Result
throw($server, $request,
$text): throws Mail::SPF::Result

Throws a new SPF result object, associating the given Mail::SPF::Server and Mail::SPF::Request objects with it. An optional result text may be specified.

Note: Do not write code invoking "throw" on literal result class names as this would ignore any derivative result classes provided by Mail::SPF extension modules. Invoke the "throw_result" method on a Mail::SPF::Server object instead.

name: returns string

Abstract. Returns the result name of the result class (or object). For classes of the Mail::SPF::Result::* hierarchy, this roughly corresponds to the trailing part of the class name. For example, returns "neutral−by−default" if invoked on Mail::SPF::Result::NeutralByDefault. Also see the "code" method. This method may also be used as an instance method.

This method must be implemented by sub-classes of Mail::SPF::Result for which the result name differs from the result code.

class: returns class
: returns class

Maps the given result name to the corresponding Mail::SPF::Result::* class, or returns the result base class (the class on which it is invoked) if no result name is given. If an unknown result name is specified, returns undef.

isa_by_name($name): returns boolean

If the class (or object) on which this method is invoked represents the given result name (or a derivative name), returns true. Returns false otherwise. This method may also be used as an instance method.

For example, "Mail::SPF::Result::NeutralByDefault−>isa_by_name('neutral')" returns true.

code: returns string

Abstract. Returns the basic SPF result code ("pass", "fail", "softfail", "neutral", "none", "error", "permerror", "temperror") of the result class on which it is invoked. All valid result codes are valid result names as well, the reverse however does not apply. This method may also be used as an instance method.

This method is abstract and must be implemented by sub-classes of Mail::SPF::Result.

is_code($code): returns boolean

If the class (or object) on which this method is invoked represents the given result code, returns true. Returns false otherwise. This method may also be used as an instance method.

Note: The "isa_by_name" method provides a superset of this method’s functionality.

received_spf_header_name: returns string

Returns ’Received−SPF’ as the field name for "Received−SPF" header fields. This method should be overridden by Mail::SPF extension modules that provide non-standard features (such as local policy) with the capacity to dilute the purity of SPF results, in order not to deceive users of the header field into mistaking it as an indication of a natural SPF result.

Instance methods
The following instance methods are provided:
: throws Mail::SPF::Result
throw($server, $request)
: throws Mail::SPF::Result
throw($server, $request,
$text): throws Mail::SPF::Result

Re-throws an existing SPF result object. If Mail::SPF::Server and Mail::SPF::Request objects are specified, associates them with the result object, replacing the prior server and request objects. If a result text is specified as well, overrides the prior result text.

server: returns Mail::SPF::Server

Returns the Mail::SPF server object that produced the result at hand.

request: returns Mail::SPF::Request

Returns the SPF request that led to the result at hand.

text: returns string

Returns the text message of the result object.

stringify: returns string

Returns the result’s name and text message formatted as a string. You can simply use a Mail::SPF::Result object as a string for the same effect, see " OVERLOADING ".

local_explanation: returns string; throws Mail::SPF::EDNSError,

Returns a locally generated explanation for the result.

The local explanation is prefixed with the authority domain whose sender policy is responsible for the result. If the responsible sender policy referred to another domain’s policy (using the "include" mechanism or the "redirect" modifier), that other domain which is directly responsible for the result is also included in the local explanation’s head. For example: <local−explanation>

The authority domain ""’s sender policy is directly responsible for the result. ... <local−explanation>

The authority domain "" (directly or indirectly) referred to the domain "", whose sender policy then led to the result.

received_spf_header: returns string

Returns a string containing an appropriate "Received−SPF" header field for the result object. The header field is not line-wrapped and contains no trailing newline character.


If a Mail::SPF::Result object is used as a string, the "stringify" method is used to convert the object into a string.


The following result classes are provided:






This is a special case of the "neutral" result that is thrown as a default when "falling off" the end of the record during evaluation. See RFC 4408, 4.7.





The following result classes have additional functionality:

The following additional instance method is provided:
: returns string; throws Mail::SPF::EDNSError,

Returns the authority domain’s explanation for the result. Be aware that the authority domain may be a malicious party and thus the authority explanation should not be trusted blindly. See RFC 4408, 10.5, for a detailed discussion of this issue.


Mail::SPF, Mail::SPF::Server, Error, "eval" in perlfunc


For availability, support, and license information, see the README file included with Mail::SPF.


Julian Mehnle <>


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